Presentation on theme: "Articles and Determiners UNIT 4 26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 41."— Presentation transcript:
Articles and Determiners UNIT 4 26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 41
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 42 Some means ‘a certain (not large) number or amount of’. Some is used mostly in affirmative sentences. We also use some in requests when we expect people to say ‘Yes’ (for example in request and offers.) (p162 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: She has some good DVDs at home. Could I have some sugar, please? Would you like some coffee?
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 43 We use any instead of some in negative sentences, in most questions, with if, and with words like never, hardly, without, refuse, doubt (which have a negative kind of meaning) (pp163-164 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: There isn’t any milk.. If you find any mistakes, tell me? We arrived without any difficulties
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 44 We use some /any to talk about indefinite, not very large numbers or amounts – when we don’t know, care or say exactly how much/many. We use no article when we are thinking about unlimited numbers or amounts, or not thinking about numbers/ amounts. We do not use some/any when it is clear exactly how much / many. (p166 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: I planted some roses in the garden. I like roses.
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 45 No is a more emphatic way of saying ‘not a’ or ‘not any’. At the beginning of a sentence, no is almost always used. (With of, use ‘none’) (p164 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: I haven’t got any time = I have got no time. No students failed the exam. None of my friends appreciate your brother.
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 46 Any means ‘it doesn’t matter which’. In this situation any is used in a positive sentence. (Just any is used in a negative sentence, to make it clear.) (p167 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: Come any time you like, we’ll be at home. Any doctor will tell you that.
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 47 We use (how)much with uncountable nouns (singular) and (how)many with countable nouns (plural). We can use much and many without nouns if the meaning is clear. Much and many are used mostly in questions and negatives. In affirmative sentences ‘a lot of ‘ is better. (p168 Good Grammar Book) SOME / ANY / NO / MUCH / MANY Examples: I haven’t got much time. Have you visited many cities? Have you got any money? Not much Have you got many British friends? Not but I’ve got a lot of American friends.
ARTICLES 26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 48 INDEFINITE DEFINITE AAN THE singular singular and plural With a consonant sound: A book A cat A house A uniform With a vowel sound: An uncle An orange An hour The house – the houses With vowel pronounce: The (i) end
26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 49 ARTICLES When it’s clear which thing we mean: Where is Pat? In the garden (we know exactly which garden it is!) (see special cases Good Grammar Book p152-158) THEA / AN When it’s not clear which one: When we were in London, we stayed in a small hotel. (there are many small hotels, we don’t know which one) When we say what something or somebody (jobs)is: He is a doctor Switzerland is a small country
Correct the mistakes! 26/01/2009New Headway, Unit 410 I am teacher What lovely day today! We have the cat and the dog. A cat is black and a dog is brown. They crossed Atlantic Ocean. It is where Queen lives. The milk is good for you. I live in the Switzerland. We came by the train. I am a teacher What a lovely day today! We have a cat and the dog. The cat is black and the dog is brown. They crossed the Atlantic Ocean. It is where the Queen lives. Milk is good for you. I live in Switzerland. We came by train.