Presentation on theme: "The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Middle East and South Asia during the Early Modern Era 1450-1750 Suleymaniye mosque built for Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Sinan Pashain 1556.
2 4000 BCE – 500 BCE Mesopotamia Veiling of women Moses established monotheism.Hammurabi’s Law Code
3 500 BCE – 600 CEPersian EmpireAlexander of Macedon sacked the capital built by Darius at Persepolis.Zoroastrianism and its text The Gathas promoted the concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, and reward and punishment.
4 600 CE – 1450 CE Muhammad introduces Islam. Umayyad Empire institutes a tax, the “jizya,” on Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists.Conquering empire
5 600 CE – 1450 CEAbbasid EmpireRelied on Persian techniques of administration.Baghdad became a center of bankers, commerce, and craftIndian, Persian, and Greek influences encouraged explosion in literature, philosophy and mathematics.
6 600 CE – 1450 CEMongolsKublai Khan’s brother toppled Abbasid Empire and established Mongol ilkhanate in Persia.
7 1450 CE – 1750 CE Ottomans Autocratic Women were revered in politics and helped manage empire.Bureaucracy drew inspiration from stepped traditions of Turkish and Mongol peopleSacked capitol of Constantinople and absorbed Byzantine Empire.
8 Identify the five most significant cultural changes that took place in the Middle East during the Early Modern Era ( ).
9 Political ChangeWhen Mehmud II captured Constantinople in 1453, he established new capitol and called it Istanbul.He established tightly centralized, absolute monarchy.He wasn’t just a warrior; he was also a true emperor.Under Suleyman, the Ottomans became a naval power.Shan Ismail and the Savavids established a presence in modern day Iran and Iraq.
11 Political ChangeConflicts developed between the Ottomans and the Safavids who embraced Twelver Shiism.Flashback:After the death of Muhammad Muslims split:Shias believed leadership should be assigned to descendants of Ali.Sunnis believed in the legitimacy of the early caliphs.When Muhammad died, there was no plan for succession so his closest friend Abu Baker became head of state for the Islamic community as well as religious leader and military commander.During the early decades after Muhammad’s death, leaders of the most powerful Arab clans negotiated among themselves and appointed the first four caliphs. Political ambitions, personal differences, and clan loyalties complicated their deliverations.These disputes soon led to the rise of factions and parties within the Islamic community.As a result, the Shia sect emerged as an alternative to Sunni Islami. The Shia originated as a party supporting the appointment of Ali and his descendants. A cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, Ali was a candidate for caliph when the prophet die but support for Abu Bakr, his friend was stronger.
12 Social ChangeThe ruler’s mother and his chief wife or favorite concubine enjoyed special privileges and authority.Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emperors followed the example of Chinggis Khan in relying on these women in political roles.Population growth was not as dramatic as in other parts of the world.
13 Religious ChangeTwelver Shiism was introduced by Shah Ismail and the Safavid Empire.They believed one of the twelve religious leaders after Muhammad beginning with Ali would return to take power and spread true religion.Safavids believed that Ismail was incarnation of Allah.Established Shiites in Iran and Iraq which still exists today.
14 Intellectual ChangeThere was a decline in intellectual pursuits due to the focus on expansion.Islamic empires neglected cultural developments in the larger world.Few Muslims traveled willingly to the land of the Franks.Muslim rulers and their subjects felt superior and believed they had nothing to learn from Europeans.Conservative religious Islamic leaders actively discouraged the circulation of writing that might pose challenges to the social and cultural order.
15 Technological ChangeCapital cities and royal palaces reflected imperial majesty.Monuments of Istanbul reflected Byzantine and Islamic elements.Suleymaniye’s religious complex combined tall, slender minarets and large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sophia.They used European warfare technologies on a widespread scale.
16 Economic Changes in Middle East American food products were introduced to Middle East:Maize, potatoes, and tomatoesAmerican producers and European merchants supplied Muslim markets with coffee, sugar, and tobacco.By the 18th century, foreign trade had declined dramatically.Much of Middle Eastern trade had fallen under the control of European powers.
17 What were the continuities in the Middle East during the Early Modern Era (1450-1750)?
18 Political Continuities They remained Islamic and military empires.Continued use of the devshirme and Janissaries established by early Ottoman empire.Islamic empires continued the use of the dhimmi in return for the jizya.Continued fighting among different groups within the empire.Religious tensionsEconomic difficulties
19 Social ContinuitiesThe practice of veiling of women continued. The lives of most women in society continued to be suppressed.
20 Religious Continuities Islam remained the predominant religion of the region.Ottomans continued practice of religious toleration as long as the jizya was paid.
21 Technological Continuities A common theme throughout this period was the use of European warfare technologies.
22 Economic Continuities The Middle East continued to play a role in regional trade, though their place in the global trade network decreased.
23 Political and Religious Change in South Asia: Islam arrives in India. The Mughals, led by Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur the tiger), came from central Asia and took Delhi.His grandson, Akbar, expanded the Mughal empire into southern India. Akbar was a tolerant ruler.Zurangzeb taxed and persecuted Hindus. It intensified tension between Hindus and Mughal leaders.Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur (February 23 [O.S. February 14] 1483 — January 5 [O.S. December ] 1531) was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of India. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother. Babur identified his lineage as Timurid and Chaghatay-Turkic, while his origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so he was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results.
24 Changes in Gender in South Asia Like Middle Eastern Islamic empires, rulers consulted their wives on political matters.Aurangzeb followed his daughter’s advice.Mughal Shah Jahan constructed the Taj Mahal to honor his wife.
25 Changes in Gender in South Asia Women in imperial households had roles as official wives and concubines but were relegated to the harem where they raised their young children and competed with one another for the ruler’s affections and favors. Because succession was an indeterminate matter, imperial struggles for power often began in the harem between competing mothers of potential heirs.
26 Cultural Influences in South Asia Mughals blended central Asian features with Hindu architecture.The Taj Mahal, a mausoleum dedicated to the memory of Shah Jahan’s favorite wife, shows the influence of Islam with arches and arcades.Mughal painting was heavily influenced by Persian painters.