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Evolution Evidence Class Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution Evidence Class Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolution Evidence Class Research

2 Please add your research to this power point
Please add your research to this power point. Go to the section that you were assigned and add the 4- 5 examples of evidence along with their significance to the power point. Include any pictures that will be interesting or helpful to your explanation when you go over your information in class. Remember to have hand written notes to turn in to me on the due date. If your information is already included, try to include something “new” in the special area of interest so we do not have repeat information.

3 Special area of interest-Name
Include your name at the top with the area of special interest. I made several template slides. If they run out, make a new one using the same format. You can include more than one fact per slide, but try not to put too much on each one as you will be taking notes from them in class!

4 Anatomy- Name: Shiming Deng
Evidence Embryos of many animals like humans, chickens, frogs, reptiles, and fish are similar Significance It shows the mechanism for embryonic development are inhereited from a common ancestor

5 Anatomy- Name: Shiming Deng
Evidence Some snakes have vestigial hind legs during embryonic development Significance It shows snakes are descended from an ancestor who had legs

6 Anatomy- Name: Shiming Deng
Evidence Whales have vestigial hind leg bones Significance It shows they were descended from an ancestor who lived on land

7 Anatomy- Name: Shiming Deng
Evidence Whales move by moving their tails up and down, rather than back and forth like fishes Significance It shows that whales did evolved from animals whose backbones naturally bent up and down

8 Anatomy Amanda Westcott
Yellow = shoulder blade Red = upper arm Blue and Green = lower arm Purple = forefoot The shoulder blade got smaller and finally disappeared. he bones in the hand spread Out became very broad, and The upper arm bone got longer. The underlying skeletons of the arms, forelegs, flippers, and wings of different mammals are homologous structures. Homologous structures represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor.

9 At some point in their development, all vertebrate embryos have a tail located posterior to the anus, as well as structures called pharyngeal (throat) pouches. Comparing the early stages of development in different animal species reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms.

10 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins
Evidence Dolphins have front flippers in order to help reduce the friction in the water while they are swimming. However, their bone structure of the arms are very similar to humans, yet their environments are completely different. Significance This shows that species that have the same structures will adapt traits in order to better fit their environment. 10

11 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins
Evidence The arms of humans, forelegs of dogs and cats, wings of birds, flippers of whales, and flippers of seals all have the same vertebrate arm pattern. Significance This evidence shows that many groups of species inherited their body structures from the same common ancestor. 11

12 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins
Evidence Compared to the bone structure of a human, the foot of a pig has completely lost digit 1, digits 2 and 5 have been reduced, and only digit 3 and 4 support their body. Significance The structure of bones in animals have adapted in order to benefit their survival rate in their surrounding environment. 12

13 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins
Evidence Hoatzin chicks have claws on their wings, as well as some chickens and ostriches. Significance This evidence reflects that these bird ancestors had clawed hand, thus having a better chance to determine the ancestor of these birds. 13

14 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins
Evidence The embryos of several animals look almost identical in the very early stages, especially chickens and humans, both having the gills. However, they later then take their own distinct course. Significance This shows that because the embryos look so similar in the beginning, animals have similar common ancestors and have evolved from those ancestors. 14

15 Anatomy- Name: Ashleigh Elkins

16 Anatomy-Hannah Williams
Dewclaws are examples of a vestigial structure we can see in everyday in a variety of animals (especially cloven-hoofed ones) or ditigrade species. They are the reduced, nonfunctional digits that are often grown so high on the leg that they serve no use for the animals. Show that common land animals descend from a common ancestor, perhaps breaking off from us and continuing evolving without us as humans do not have dewclaws.

17 Anatomy-Hannah Williams
The dinosaur species Unenlagia serves a link between dinosaurs and can fold its bone in a similar way to birds fluffing their feathers. Unenlagia also show how flight has evolved. Birds did not start out as gliders like pterosaurs, rather they began as flappers whose beating wings co-opted motions that originally evolved to perform some other functions such as predation but probably also in maintenance of balance and to control its body attitude while running and leaping. Shows that the results of evolution are all around us, and that survival of the fittest doesn’t necessarily mean a ferocious Tyrannosaurus Rex, perhaps its descendants, birds, such as chicken are better suited for their environment. 17

18 Anatomy-Hannah Williams
Whales and hummingbirds have tetrapod skeletons inherited from a common ancestor, and although their bodies have been modified and parts have been lost through natural selection, resulting in adaptation to their respective lifestyles over millions of years. On the surface, these animals look very different, but the relationship between them is easy to demonstrate. Except for those bones that have been lost over time, nearly every bone in each corresponds to an equivalent bone in the other in a broad homologous structure similarity 18

19 Anatomy-Hannah Williams
Shows that despite sometimes ignorant false belief, humans and apes share a common ancestor that can be seen in their binocular vision, flat shoulder blades, and opposable thumbs as well. Human and apes have chests that are broader than they are deep, with flat shoulder blades because we descend from an ancestor who used upper limbs for mobility and suspension.

20 Anatomy-Hannah Williams
The embryo structure of almost all land animals are incredibly similar, even amphibians have a similar structure in the earlier stages. These embryos share a common gill slit structure that develops into the ear, nose, and throat as well as their fin Provides proof that we descended from a common ancestor.

21 Anatomy- Sedona Tetrapod Skeleton Except for the bones that have been lost over time due to natural selection, nearly every bone in each corresponds to an equivalent bone in the other -hind limbs, ribs, phalanges, radius, ulna, humerus, skull

22 Anatomy-Sedona Homologous: Forelimbs of humans, dogs, bats, and whales all have the same number of bones; External features and function are different; Embryological development and anatomical structure are strikingly similar Analogous: birds and dragonflies both have wings which allow them to fly, but the structures are so different they cannot indicate an evolutionary relationship or common ancestor (this is evidence they evolved along common ancestors) Vestigial: Whales have vestigial hind leg bones which shows they share an evolutionary relationship with land mammals; humans have over 100 vestigial structures Extra Info: All vertebrates having 4 limbs and gill pouches at some point during development shows evolutionary changes occurring over time

23 Anatomy-Sedona Forelimbs of humans, birds, cats, whales, bats and other animals are very similar Animals have structures they do not use (vestigial structures) Humans: appendix, fused tail vertebrae, wisdom teeth, muscles that move ears and nose Snakes: Hip bones Whales: Hind limb bone structures

24 Anatomy-Sedona Evolution of the Eye Through natural selection different types of eyes have emerged Every change had to confer a survival advantage Eventually, the light-sensitive spot evolved into a retina, the layer of cells and pigment at the back of the human eye. Over time a lens formed at the front of the eye. It could have arisen as a double-layered transparent tissue containing increasing amounts of liquid that gave it the convex curvature of the human eye.

25 Anatomy, Ellen Yu, #1 Evidence:
The bones of the forelimbs of 5 very different animals Wing of bat, flipper of whale, leg of cat, arm of human, wing of bird Significance: These are all made up of the same type of bones. They are attached to each other in similar ways, share function that they inherited from a common ancestor The bones of fore limbs consist of the bones of the upper arm, lower arm, and fingers. All these bones together help us to do work like lifting and holding things.

26 Anatomy, Ellen Yu, #2 Significance: however, although these marine animals seem similar, they have different ancestors. Because over time, their ancestors adapted to living in the water Even though they are not closely related This is called convergent evolution Evidence: penguin, shark and sea lion are all excellent swimmers They have fins or flippers and streamlined bodies that enable them to propel themselves through the water

27 Anatomy, Ellen Yu, #3 Evidence:
Terrestial vertebrates have 5 digits inherited from a common ancestor Example: humans, crocodiles, toads Feet of pigs, camels, and deer only have 2 digits Significance: However humans are more closely related to pigs, camels, and deer than to crocodiles and toads This means that having 5 digits is a primitive trait In biological terms, a trait that has not changed from an ancestral state. 

28 Anatomy, Ellen Yu, #4 Evidence: The human appendix is just one example of a vestigial structure Which is a structure that has little or no function in an organism, but is clearly related to a more fully developed structure in another organism Significance: it is thought that such a structure did originally serve a function in an ancestral organism In appearance, the human appendix is a smaller copy of the cecum in the rabbit The cecum is a large pouch that contains microorganisms that digest the plant materials

29 Anatomy, Ellen Yu, #5 Evidence: wings are present in a number of different organisms But what does this say about how closely related these animals really are? Significance: the assumed answer is a common winged ancestor, but this is wrong The structure of wings of bats and birds have little in common with those of insects Bird wings and insect wings are an analogous trait, a trait that has developed independently in 2 groups of organisms from unrelated ancestral traits

30 Sources

31 Anatomy- flightless bird Name: Kaitlin
Evidence The wings of flightless birds are vestigial structures, however, the wings of penguins have adapted to function as flippers for swimming, most flightless birds use them for balance Significance •This indicated that their ancestors once had the ability to fly

32 Flightless Birds continued
Evidence The ostrich obtained claws on their feet as a weapon against their predators (in return for not being able to fly)

33 Anatomy- Astyanax Mexicanus, blind fish Name:Kaitlin
Evidence As the fish develops in the embryo, the vestigial eyes begin to degenerate & the fish is born with a collapsed eye covered with fold of skin Significance This fish lives deep in the underwater caves of gulf of mexico (hence the name). The ability to see is not needed where it is dark because there is no light for the photoreceptor to convert Indicated that their early ancestors used to have ability to see, & live in areas with light

34 Anatomy- Name: Evidence Significance
Astyanax Mexicanus, also known as Mexican tetra/blind cave fish

35 Anatomy- The human appendix Name:Kaitlin
Evidence The appendix is a vestigial structure since it does not directly help digestion in humans in some cases the appendix has to be removed Significance This indicated that our ancestors were once plant eating

36 Anatomy- Name: Significance
The appendix is located at the end of the large intestine, where it is attached & does not directly help in digestion

37 Molecular Biology- Box jellyfish & human eyes Name:Kaitlin
Evidence structure of the box jellyfish’s photoreceptors are closer to those of the back-boned vertebrates than spineless invertebrates opsin protein is also similar to the versions found in vertebrate eyes both vertebrates & invertebrates construct their eyes using similar genetic component Significance The eyes of the box jellyfish tell us that eyes evolve by changing how existing groups of genes are used, instead of adding new ones to the mix Vertebrates may have evolved from spineless invertebrates

38 Anatomy- Name: box jellyfish (Tripedelia cystophora) Ooooh so pretty
Evidence Significance box jellyfish (Tripedelia cystophora) Ooooh so pretty

39 Cited sources

40 Anatomy- Name:Waldman
This is actually a vestigial structure. Human ancestors once used this structure to trap air in their fur to warm themselves. It also served as a defense mechanism in the effect that the contraction of the skin puffed out the hair to make the organism look larger, to scare away predators. Humans themselves have insufficient hair to have this trait efficient in any way. When human get scared, or become cold, it causes the Arrector Pili muscle to contract the skin and create goose bumps.

41 Anatomy- Name:Waldman
Another structure in humans that is vestigial and is of no use to us is the tailbone. All mammals have a tailbone, but humans have transgressed the need for one The presence of a tailbone suggest that our ancestors had tails that they used to balance themselves. As we learned to walk upright, we had no need for a tail, and it slowly got removed from our ancestor’s gene pool. The tail was also used as a form of communication that is no longer needed to get by in daily life.

42 Anatomy- Name:Waldman
The dandelion’s entire form of sexual reproduction is a vestigial trait. All Dandelions have a stamen and a pistil and release pollen that will never fertilize another dandelion All dandelions reproduce asexually. Why they do this is because they have traits that help them thrive and easily reproduce quickly. If they reproduced sexually, dandelions would lose some of the traits that make them resilient.

43 Anatomy- Name:Waldman
Sexual reproduction is a vestigial behavior in Virgin Whiptail Lizards. Females lay unfertilized eggs, and those develop into new individuals These lizards have evolved from a sexual species of lizards, and sexual reproduction is no longer needed or used for them to reproduce. This behavior could be considered a vestigial behavior left behind by an ancestor.

44 Molecular Biology Cap Mewborne
Evidence: All life has DNA that is coded in the same way, even in radically different species Significance: This gives evidence that all life descended from a single original species

45 Molecular Biology Cap Mewborne
Evidence: All living things have DNA and share the same characteristics of life Significance This gives evidence that all life comes from one source

46 Molecular Biology Cap Mewborne
Evidence: Significance: All life has DNA that is coded in the same way, even in radically different species This gives evidence that all life descended from a single original species

47 Molecular Biology Cap Mewborne
Evidence: All life uses specific interchangeable proteins called “Ubiquitous Proteins” Significance This gives evidence that all life descended from a single original species

48 Molecular Biology- Name: Hanna Karimipour
Evidence Strands of DNA can act as molecular clocks. This is a gene on which you can trace mutations because the changes occur at a certain rate. Example: Cytochrome C Significance Because of things occurring at a certain rate, you can trace important evolutionary events. You can track changes in genes over time.

49 Molecular Biology- Name: Hanna Karimipour
Evidence Humans are closely related to chimps with their proteins, DNA and RNA but are very different from, for example, a sea cucumber. This is shown by studies of DNA compared to evolutionary trees and paleontology. Significance This shows that the differences correlate with the time of diversion. The more alike two animals are molecularly, the more recently their time of diversion occurred.

50 Molecular Biology- Name: Hanna Karimipour
Evidence Dogs and wolves share 99.8% of their genes. Foxes are also closely related. Significance This shows the close relation of the species. It implies a common ancestor.

51 Molecular Biology- Name: Hanna Karimipour
Evidence All organisms have plasma membranes containing a phospholipid bilayer. There are variations in the structures of membranes, but they all have the same basic foundations. Significance This indicates that cells have a common origin, and the origin had a similar membrane.

52 Evidence of Evolution Though Molecular Biology Daniela Monroy
Significance Illustration Source In humans and chimpanzees cytochrome c (a protein which serves a vital function in respiration within cells) consists of the same 104 amino acids in exactly the same order. It differs from the cytochrome c of rhesus monkeys by 1 amino acid, from that of horses by 11 additional amino acids, and from that of tuna by 21 additional amino acids. The degree of similarity reflects the recency of common ancestry.

53 Evidence of Evolution Though Molecular Biology Daniela Monroy
Significance Illustration Source Humans have 23 chromosome pairs. Catarrhines (primates closely related to humans) have 24 pairs. This might appear to be evidence against a common ancestor, but we have strong evidence that identifies the pair of chromosomes that fused resulting in the decrease in chromosomes found in humans.

54 Evidence of Evolution Though Molecular Biology Daniela Monroy
Significance Illustration Source L-gulonolacto-ne oxidase (an enzyme which synthesizes vitamin C) is present in most mammals. In humans the gene which codes for this is nonfunctioning in the same manner as in old world monkeys. Evolution and common ancestry provides a simple explanation for this defect. No other theory accounts for it.

55 Evidence of Evolution Though Molecular Biology Daniela Monroy
Significance Illustration Source Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas all have a set of beta-globin genes with a pseudogene right in the middle of the set. In addition, they are arranged in exactly the same way with exactly the same set of molecular errors. This suggests they all evolved from a common organism with this trait.

56 Jordan Thompson Molecular Biology
A compound known as oleanane was found by scientists in sediments containing extinct plants called gigantopterids Because this compound is found in nearly all flowering plants today, this is evidence that the gene for this compound was chosen by natural selection because of its ability to fight off insects and microbial insects.

57 Jordan Thompson Molecular Biology
The need to get a new flu vaccine every year As new flu virus strains evolve and become resistant each year from natural selection, a new and modified version of the flu vaccine is needed.

58 Jordan Thompson Molecular Biology
A patient having to use a different antibiotic after failing to take them for a certain amount of time. Reoccurring resistant bacteria or fungi that cant be eliminated by antibodies due to genetic mutations. Those bacteria left behind procreate and give rise to stronger more resistant bacteria

59 Jordan Thompson Molecular Biology
Cells in pre-malignant and malignant neoplasms (tumors) evolve by natural selection. Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells. Often the tumor will repopulate from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells

60 Sources

61 Lia Hamilton, Molecular Evolution
We are able to ling living things together because of the way they obtain their energy. Organisms either eat plants or other animals.

62 DNA is the universal code for every living organism
DNA is the universal code for every living organism. All proteins are made of 20 kinds of amino acids, showing links between organisms.

63 A compound known as Oleanane has been found in present day plants and it is used as a defense against insects and microbial invaders. Oleanane has been found in oily deposits that date back to the Permain period. This shows evidence that the plants from the Permain period are the early ancestors to the plants today.

64 Paleontology- Name: Jeongmin Ham
Evidence: Working with colleagues in China and Canada, Field Museum paleontologist Olivier Rieppel analyzed the world’s oldest turtle fossil, estimated to be 220 million years old. The ancient turtle, found in China, was dubbed Odontochelys semitestacea.  Found evidence to support the notion that turtle shells are bony extensions of their backbones and ribs that expanded and grew together to form a hard, protective covering. Significance: Significant to scientists was the fact that Odontochelys has only a partial shell – making it an intermediate example of the evolutionary process. The fossil did have a fully formed plastron – complete protection of its underside – just as turtles do today.

65 Paleontology- Name: Jeongmin Ham
Suminia getmanovi Evidence:  complete Suminia skeletons embedded in a single large block of red mudstone from central Russia. It’s rare to find fossils of several animals in a single block of stone and was able to see examples of virtually every bone in Suminia’s body.  Ancient Snakes with Legs Evidence: In 2000, Field Museum paleontologist Olivier Rieppel studied a new species of an ancient snake with well-developed hind limbs. well preserved 95-million-year-old fossil Significance:   For the first time, a vertebrate had access to new food resources high off the ground and also protection from ground-dwelling predators. The first evidence in the fossil record of food partitioning between small climbing and large ground-dwelling plant-eaters. Significance: legs are too small in relation to their whole bodies to provide locomotion. modern pythons have a hindlimb which males use during mating.  It’s possible that these ancient snakes used their legs in a similar way.

66 Paleontology- Name: Jeongmin Ham
Horse Evolution Over 55 Million Years Evidence: The earliest known members of the horse family, species in the genus Hyracotherium, didn't look much like horses at all. Small, with short legs and broad feet Founded by Florida Museum of Natural History Significance: Although most change involved increases in size, some decreases also occurred. Changes in color, tooth size, and foreleg bone.

67 Sources

68 Paleontology- Name: Sarah Henley
Evidence: The pelvic girdle of a whale is no longer in use. Skeletal forearms of earlier species shortened and broadened into a flipper. Significance The evidence of a former hind leg of the whale and the similar parts of the flipper to the legs of the ancestor show the transition of land animals to sea creatures and the link between the most unrelated species.

69 Paleontology- Name: Sarah Henley #2
Evidence The earliest known fossils of birds (Archaeopteryx) carried the most common features found throughout different species, such as feathers, wings, and wishbones, but also had many traits of reptiles and dinosaurs, like teeth, claws, lack of a keeled breastbone, and extensive tail vertebrae. Significance The appearance of the Archaeopteryx signaled the transition from reptiles to birds, ad later descendents soon gained the ability of flight, whereas archaeopteryx was only able to glide.

70 Paleontology- Name: Sarah Henley #3
Evidence "Lucy" (Australopithecus) is one of the most complete hominid skeletons. Lucy's skull was incomplete, but it showed that she had a small brain . Lucy was able to walk upright . her arms were longer than a modern human's and the bones of her fingers were curved, as seen in he traits of an ape. Significance The evidence of the Australopithecus shows a link of human ancestry to other primates, as the species carries traits of both.

71 Paleontology- Name: Sarah Henley #4
Evidence The Protylopus is both the oldest and smallest camel ancestor known. A jawbone of a dromedary was first found BC. The most noticeable developed bones are the skull, legs, and hooves. Significance The camel evolved from a smaller, forest-dwelling, deer-like creature to a large, desert-dwelling, dromedary that we know today. This shows the ability of a species to completely change environments as it adapts and evolves.

72 Paleontology Gillian Golemboski
Evidence: Woolly Mammoths Significance: Evolved into todays Elephants due to climate change

73 Paleontology Gillian Golemboski
Evidence: Evolution of birds. Significance: Birds are related to reptiles by sharing things like the laying of shelled eggs.

74 Paleontology Gillian Golemboski
Evidence: Invertebrate animals. Significance: large communities of 200 million year old invertebrate marine fossils found in the deserts of Nevada telling parts of the state were covered by water

75 Paleontology Gillian Golemboski
Evidence: Plants Significance: The fossils can perserved by rock material ie Leaves and seeds. This can show the diversity of plants through the years.

76 Paleontology- Name: Ismael
Evidence: Jaws with sharp teeth, three fingers with claws, long bony tail, hyperextendable second toes “killing claws”, fossils contain impressions of feathers. Significance:It is pretty much the bridge between modern birds and feathered dinosaurs. Very similar to dinosaurs and birds. Hoatzin is the modern bird that most resembles the archaeopteryx. Synapsids

77 Paleontology- Name:Ismael
Evidence: Lower jaw bones. Reptiles typically have many bones making up their jaws, mammals have a single jaw bone. Throughout many fossils we see the dentary bone grow larger and it pushes the other bones to the back of the mouth where some pretty much stop existing. However 3 important bones end up becoming the middle ear; the hammer, anvil, and stapes. This is also evident in embroyos; those three bones originate in the lower jaw and then travel to their location in the ear. Significance: Early ancestors of mammals. Initially thought to contain reptiles, disproven and now we know that they branched off and developed parallel to each other.

78 Paleontology- Name: Ismael
EvidencePeriotic ears, just like whales have. No outer ear, thought to feel vibrations through the ground. Movement in water was through undulation. Body shape similar to crocodiles. Significance: Is a possible transition between whales and land animals. It could survive in both salt and fresh water.

79 Paleontology- Name: Ismael
Evidence: Long incisors, not canines, signature of pachyderms. Somewhat long flexible snout Significance: Early ancestor of elephants, horses, and hippos.

80 Paleontology- Name:Ismael
Evidence: Scales, sharp teeth, iron board like structures used for mating on the backs of these set them apart from modern sharks. Distinctive build and hydrodynamic shape. Freshwater. Head spikes presumably for poison. Significance: Early ancestors of sharks. Iron board backs didn’t work. Poison spikes weren’t doing to well either.

81 Ismael’s Bibliography

82 Paleontology- Name: Colton Tuck
Evidence Samples of trilobites from every 3 million years show them having a different number of ribs for each sample. Significance These changes show that they evolved over time, some to the point where they were assigned a new genus.

83 Paleontology- Name: Colton Tuck
Evidence A shell-bearing protozoan, Foraminiferan, had its shell grow larger, thicker, and have a more pronounced ridge over time. Significance These fossil records indicates that evolutionary changes do occur, even though we may not know why.

84 Paleontology- Name: Colton Tuck
Evidence Fossils of a shark-like organism was found to have very similar anatomy to today’s shark. Their muscle fibers were particularly similar. Significance This may be a distant relative to today’s shark since their anatomical features were very simliar.

85 Paleontology- Name: Colton Tuck
Evidence Fossils found from the early triassic period show a proto-frog with a longer trunk, less specialized hip bone, and a tail still there. Significance An ancestor to the frog with very similar features. Frogs do have tails when developing, just as this organism had a tail.

86 Sources

87 Paleontology- Name: Ally Findley
Evidence Similarities in bone structure between reptiles and mammals, as well as between fish and tetrapods, reveal a common ancestor. Significance Through these homologous structures found in fossils, one can deduce that there is common ancestry between each pair. This suggests that said common ancestor has evolved into different varieties of the same original template.

88 Paleontology- Name: Ally Findley
Evidence A progression of fossils of the Stickleback fish from the Ice Age until recently shows dramatic reduction in the size of the fish’s pelvic spine. Significance This shows an adjustment of the same population of fish to changes in its environment, through the shortening of its pelvic spine.

89 Paleontology- Name: Ally Findley
Evidence Radiometric dating allows scientists to date layers of rock, and accordingly, index fossils found in these layers of rock. Through radiometric dating, scientists have discovered that the Earth is over 4.5 billion years old, giving an appropriate background for Darwin’s theory. Significance Discovering that the world is so old gives context to Darwin’s theory. Before, it was thought that the world was only a few thousand years old, which would not have been a sufficient amount of time for species to have evolved so drastically. Additionally, this tool dates beds of rock and has shown the progression of fossils’ appearances with the passage of time.

90 Paleontology- Name: Ally Findley
Evidence Whales and hippos, when their ancestry was traced back with the aid of fossil evidence and radiometric dating, were found to have a common ancestor and be fairly closely related. Significance Whales and hippos, two drastically different species in the modern world, share a common ancestor, which shows that evolution has occurred so that they each could adjust to their different environments. This resulted in the large difference in physical features present today between the two species.

91 Paleontology- Name: Ally Findley

92 Paleontology – Allison Huang
The early ancestor of whales was found on land. The limbs evolved from being used for walking to swimming.

93 Paleontology – Allison Huang
Each of these tetrapods have the pendactyl limb at some stage in their development. Some tetrapods lose some of these digits during development.

94 Paleontology – Allison Huang
The four-toed foot of Hyracotherium became the single-toed foot of Equus. Evolution caused the other toes to disappear over time, as they were not needed by horses. 94

95 Paleontology – Allison Huang
Pakicetus is an early ancestor to modern whales. These three pictures display the transition over time of nostril position.

96 http://www. ucmp. berkeley

97 - Name: Evidence Significance

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