9 All four sides are available to form strong covalent bonds!!! Carbon can form straight chains or branched chains or rings CC OC C C C CCCCC C CC CThis make an unlimited number of possibilities for carbon structures.
10 MACROMOLECULES 167Large molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.Contain thousands of carbons bonded with other elements..
11 polymers, 167POLYMER: a large molecule formed by many smaller ones bonded together, another name for macromolecule.Repeating units of nearly identical compounds called monomers.
12 ISOMERSCOMPOUNDS THAT HAVE THE SAME CHEMICAL FORMULA BUT DIFFERENT STRUCTURES.
13 A. Glucose, a six-membered ring monosaccharide. B A. Glucose, a six-membered ring monosaccharide. B. Fructose, a five-membered ring monosaccharide. C. Sucrose, a disaccharide containing glucose and fructose. D. Molecular representation of starch illustrating the alpha-glycosidic linkages joining monosaccharides to form the polysaccharide structure.
14 Monomer Single units of small molecules. Bond together to form POLYMERSHYDROLYSIS: ADDITION OF A WATER MOLECULE TO BREAK A BONDDehydration synthesis: removal of a water molecule to bond together two units.
21 POLYSACCHARIDES MANY MONOSACCHARIDES BONDED TOGETHER IN A POLYMER. STARCH AND GLYCOGEN ARE EXAMPLES.
22 STARCHStarches are many monosaccharides linked together in a single chain. These are called Polysaccharides.Plants use this for energy storage e.g. PotatoesTwo typesAmylose - Long strait unbranched chainsPectins - many linked short Amylose chains
23 GYLCOGEN ANIMALS STORE FOOD ENERGY IN THIS FORM. Glycogen is a moderately branched polysaccharideAnimals use this for energy storage.
25 Organic: contains Carbon How many valence electrons does Carbon have? What kind of bond?
26 Fruits, veggies, and C:H:O -- 1:2:1 (CH20)n grains Cells use Carbohydrates to store Energy and provide structural support.Quick energy!!!Fruits, veggies, and C:H:O -- 1:2:1 (CH20)ngrainsSimilar components…different structural formulas
27 LIPIDS/FATS 169Lipids are macromolecules made of mostly Carbon and Hydrogen including fats, waxes & oilsPrimary function is energy storage.Energy is stored in C-H bonds.More efficient in storing energy
28 Lipids are made of 2 parts Glycerol - an alcohol - Serves as backbone of the molecule3 Fatty acids - Long hydrocarbon chains
29 Saturated fats have long chains with no double-bonds Unsaturated fats have double bondsPolyunsaturated fats have many double bondsEach time a double bond is encountered, the molecule "Bends" slightly, resulting in a lower density of the lipid. This makes the molecule more likely to remain liquid at room or body temperatures.
30 4 Major types of biologically important Lipids Phospholipids - Important for membrane structureSteroids - e.g.. Cholesterol & testosterone. Provide membrane support / serve as hormonesTerpenes - serve as important components of pigmentsProstaglandins - appear to act like localized hormones to induce cellular/tissue responses.
31 Lipids store energy and are a component of the cell membrane C H O – no set ratioFound in meat, nuts, butternonpolarStore more Energy than carbs
32 Other LipidsCholesterol is a steroid found in the cell membrane of animal cellsPigments – light absorbing compounds
33 Structure of FatsGlycerol“backbone”3 fattyacid chains
34 Saturated Fats Contain the maximum # of C-H bonds Solid or almost solid at room temperatureUnhealthy fats!Mostly animal fats
42 PRIMARY 1STPrimary Structure of a protein is it’s sequence of amino acids
43 SECONDARY 2NDThe Sequence (primary structure) causes parts of a protein molecule to fold into sheets or bend into helix shapes - this is a protein’s Seconda ry Structure.
44 TERTIARY 3RDThe protein then can compact and twist on itself to form a mass called it’s Tertiary Structure
45 QUATERNARY 4THSeveral Proteins then can combine and form a protein’s Quaternary Structure
46 DENATUREBREAKS THE PEPTIDE BONDS OF THE PROTEIN AND MAKES THE STRUCTURE COME APART.
47 Types of ProteinsCollagen: most abundant--Skin, ligaments, tendons, bonesEnzyme: catalyst (increase the rate of chemical reactions)Antibiodies: defend against infectionHemoglobin: carries oxygen in blood
48 Nucleic acids, 171Complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information.DNA and RNA are examples of nucleic acids.
49 Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids
55 CarbohydratesMonosaccharides are single sugars that react with a mixture called Benedict's reagent or Benedict's solution. The reaction changes the color of the reagent to green, red or orange depending oh how much sugar is present. Benedict's reagent can be used to test for the presence of many of the simple sugars.Complete the experiment that follows with Benedict's reagent.
56 Results after five minutes of heating Benedict's solution and glucose.
57 Below are the results of two tubes heated with Benedict's reagent Below are the results of two tubes heated with Benedict's reagent. Which one is positive for simple sugars and which is negative?
58 Add 2 milliliters of iodine to 2 milliliters of water.
59 add 2 milliliters of iodine to a starch solution.
60 Which of the tubes to the right is a positive test for starch and which is a negative?
61 ProteinsProteins react with biuret reagent. The reaction turns the color of biuret from a light blue to violet.Complete the experiment that follows with biuret reagent.
69 SC.912.P Describe the properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity of carbon compounds possible.1. How many electrons does Carbon have in the valence shell___4____ Draw a carbon atoms valence electrons2. How many covalent bonds does this allow it to form? ___4____3. Are the bonds close to the nucleus or far from it? ____close___4. Does this make them stronger or weaker than ones that are further from the nucleus? __stronger____
70 SC. 912.L Describe the basic molecular structure and primary function of the four major classes of biological macromolecules.What are organic compounds? Those that contain carbon___List the 4 major types of organic molecules and a brief description of each.1. Carbohydrates: CH2O energy, Mono, di, Poly2. Lipids: C and H no ratio, long term storage of energy, membranes3. Proteins: made of amino acids, enzymes, structures, longer energy storage than carbs4. Nucleic Acids: Sugar Phosphate and nitrogen base, DNA and RNA genetic information
71 5. Amino acids in a chain can interact to form sheets or coil into more complex shapes. Why is the shape of a complex protein important? It may be an enzyme and have an active site or be a structure In an organism.6. What property of lipids makes them the perfect component of the cell membrane? Hydrophobic/ nonpolar water barrier.7. What are the basic building blocks of proteins? Amino acids8. Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins contain nitrogen.9. These organic molecules act as enzymes or structural components like collagen that is found in skin, tendons and bones. proteins
72 10. Which type of organic molecule has primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures? Proteins11. Where are phospholipids found? Cell membranes,12. What is the function of nucleic acids? store and transmit genetic information13. What are the three parts of a nucleotide? Sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base.
73 SC.912.L Describe the important structural characteristics of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides and explain the functions of carbohydrates in living things.1. As you move from mono to di to poly saccharides what happens to the amount of energy the molecule holds? It increases. So what happens to the function of these types of molecules? They become more long term storage or structural molecules rather than quick energy sources.2. What is the structure of a fatty acid? Long hydrocarbon chains3. What are some of the functions they perform? _long term energy storage , insulation
74 SC. 912. L. 18. 4 Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids SC.912.L.18.4 Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids. Explain the functions of proteins in living organisms. Identify some reactions that amino acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of enzymes.1. How does the shape of a protein play a role in the function it performs? The shape is important to the role as an enzyme and the ability to accept the substrate into the active site to lower the activation energy.