2 1. Line up your stones in order across your paper towel 1. Line up your stones in order across your paper towel. Choose 7 you want to identify2. Color - that's easy!3. Luster = glassy, dull, or metallic?4. Diaphaneity = is it transparent, translucent or opaque? Hold it up to the light!5. Streak = use the white streak plate. If you don't see a streak, than the streak color is white6. Hardness =- if your fingernail can't scratch it...then it is harder than 2.5- if the stone can scratch a penny...then it is harder than 3.5- if it can scratch the glass plate...then it is harder than 5.5- Last, borrow a ruby or sapphire. If it can scratch that, then you have a ruby or sapphire. If not, you probably have a stone with a hardness of 7.7. Density = mass / volumeFor mass, use the TBB. For volume, use water displacement.
20 FRONT OF ROOM No one sits here at this table X X X X X X X X X X X X X
21 The Gem Dig Geology Jail Guidelines 1. Every geologist must have a couple of paper towels in front of you during the dig2. You must leave your gems out in front of you at all times.2. At the end, each geologist will be given a plastic bag. Your name and period must be on this bagGeology Jail GuidelinesIf you go to jail, your bail is gems...and I get to pick.·If you whine about wanting bigger or better stones...JAIL!·If you whine about wanting me to go faster...JAIL!·If you steal anyone's stones...JAIL...big time JAIL!·If you attempt to trade during the dig...JAIL!·If you splash the river water...JAIL!·If you leave your river station and chase me around...JAIL!·If you whine about JAIL...More JAIL!
23 GEM DIG Research and Background Information 1. What are minerals?An inorganic solid, made of one or more elements, with acrystalline structure (3,000 known!)2. How are rocks different from minerals?A rock is mixture of 2 or more minerals.3. What are crystals and gems?Form when minerals cool and have time and space to crystallize.
24 4. How do we identify gemstones? · _____________________________________________________
26 HardnessA stone can scratch anythingbelow it on the chart
27 Friedrich Mohs Questions: 1. True/False...Talc can scratch gypsum 2. True/False...Quartz can scratch Fluorite.3. True/False...Fluorite can scratch Quartz4. True/False...you can scratch quartzwith a kitchen knife.5. True/False...Calcite can put a scratchin glass.6. True/False...your fingernail can scratchGypsum.7. True/False...nothing can scratch adiamond.Friedrich Mohs
34 Sedimentary when sediments get cemented together! CLASTIC: When little pieces of rocks are cemented togetherCHEMICAL: When water evaporates and leaves dissolved minerals behindORGANIC: Accumulation of shells and bones
40 Cloning an extinct mountain goat! A mouse-human hybrid petered out after just one [cell] division. The cow and rabbit human hybrids went further, but stopped at the point when maternal DNA is supposed to kick in and turn the ball of cells into a proper embryo,New Snake Fossil found·as long as a school bus·big as a Volkswagon, 2500 pounds·60 mya·How could Earth support such a big cold-blooded animal?Cloning an extinct mountain goat!Amphibious primitive whale...came onto land to give birth
46 1912...Alfred Wegener proposed theory of continental drift!
47 Today we call it the Theory of PLATE TECTONICS!!!
48 Big Question: What is our evidence of plate tectonics? 1. Continental Shape Puzzle2. Fossil similarities3. Rock similarities4. Andean mountains
49 So...if the plates keep on moving, then things are going to change, right??? Above: The possible appearance of the Earth 50 million years from now.·Africa has collided with Europe, closing off the Mediterranean Sea.·Atlantic has widened·Australia has migrated north.·Image courtesy of Dr. Christopher Scotese.
50 Pangea Ultima...250 million years into the future! ·Africa is going to smash into Europe·Australia migrates north to merge with Asia·Atlantic Ocean will probably widen for a spell before it reverses course and later disappears.
51 Its all about the plates! USE 3 SHEETS OF PAPER TO MAKE A FOLDABLEPass that plate, will ya?TITLEPAGEIts all about the plates!(cheesy title!)Plate TectonicsSUPERCONTINENTSPLATE DETAILSCONVECTION CURRENTSCONVERGENT BOUNDARIES = WHEN PLATES COME TOGETHERDIVERGENT AND TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
52 1912 - Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift...the continents are on the move!his picturehere!245 myapicture ofpangaea205 myaSUPERCONTINENTS
53 Lithosphere = rocky crust, rigid upper mantle - Oceanic Crust (below oceans)...more dense- Continental Crust (land!)...less denseAsthenosphere = part of mantle, slowly movingPICTURE OFLITHOSPHERE ANDASTHENOSPHERE·7 major plates·7 minor plates·always in motion, 2-3cm per yearPLATE DETAILS
59 Oceanic/Oceanic What is subduction? Oceanic/Continental Continental/ContinentalOceanic/OceanicWhat is subduction?When one plate gets pushedbeneath anotherCONVERGENT BOUNDARIES = WHEN PLATES COME TOGETHER
60 Continental: Transform Boundaries: When plates slide! Earthquakes result!Divergent Boundaries: When plates move apartOceanic:Continental:DIVERGENT AND TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES