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1 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle and High Schools: A Step-by-Step Guide Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

2 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Workshop PPTs and Handouts Available at: http://www.jimwrightonline.com/ esc20.php 2

3 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Workshop Agenda 1.RTI & Secondary Schools: Introduction 2.Creating Effective RTI Problem-Solving Teams 3.Assessment & Progress-Monitoring Across the Tiers 4.Building Classroom Teacher Capacity to Select & Implement Interventions 5.Promoting Student Engagement in the RTI Process 6.Preparing Your School for RTI Systems-Level Change

4 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 4 RTI Assumption: Struggling Students Are ‘Typical’ Until Proven Otherwise… RTI logic assumes that: –A student who begins to struggle in general education is typical, and that –It is general education’s responsibility to find the instructional strategies that will unlock the student’s learning potential Only when the student shows through well-documented interventions that he or she has ‘failed to respond to intervention’ does RTI begin to investigate the possibility that the student may have a learning disability or other special education condition.

5 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 5 Secondary Students: Unique Challenges… Struggling learners in middle and high school may: Have significant deficits in basic academic skills Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and concepts Present with issues of school motivation Show social/emotional concerns that interfere with academics Have difficulty with attendance Are often in a process of disengaging from learning even as adults in school expect that those students will move toward being ‘self-managing’ learners…

6 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 6 Why Do Students Drop Out of School?: Student Survey Classes were not perceived as interesting (47 percent) Not motivated by teachers to ‘work hard’ (69 percent) Failing in school was a major factor in dropping out (35 percent) Had to get a job (32 percent) Became a parent (26 percent) Needed to care for a family member (22 percent) Source: Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle, WA: Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008, from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/ed/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf

7 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 7 Overlap Between ‘Policy Pathways’ & RTI Goals: Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout Rates A range of high school learning options matched to the needs of individual learners: ‘different schools for different students’ Strategies to engage parents Individualized graduation plans ‘Early warning systems’ to identify students at risk of school failure A range of supplemental services/’intensive assistance strategies’ for struggling students Adult advocates to work individually with at-risk students to overcome obstacles to school completion Source: Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle, WA: Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008, from http://www.gatesfoundation.org/nr/downloads/ed/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf

8 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 8 School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event “It is increasingly accepted that dropout is best conceptualized as a long-term process, not an instantaneous event; however, most interventions are administered at a middle or high school level after problems are severe.” Source: Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., & Hess, R. (2008). Best practices in increasing the likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.. p.1090

9 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 9 Student Motivation & The Need for Intervention “A common response to students who struggle in sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the natural commotion of early adolescence and to temporary difficulties in adapting to new organizational structures of schooling, more challenging curricula and assessment, and less personalized attention. Our evidence clearly indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban schools, sixth graders who are missing 20% or more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or failing math or English do not recover. On the contrary, they drop out. This says that early intervention is not only productive but absolutely essential.” Source: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235..

10 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 10 What Are the ‘Early Warning Flags’ of Student Drop-Out? A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were tracked for 8 years. These early warning indicators were found to predict student drop-out in the sixth-grade year: Failure in English Failure in math Missing at least 20% of school days Receiving an ‘unsatisfactory’ behavior rating from at least one teacher Source: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235..

11 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 11 What is the Predictive Power of These Early Warning Flags? Source: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235.. Number of ‘Early Warning Flags’ in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate None56% 136% 221% 313% 47%

12 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 12 School Intervention Targets: Focus on What Schools Can Change “Rather than considering a [student] problem to be the result of inalterable student characteristics, [school intervention] teams are compelled to focus on change that can be made to the intervention, curriculum or environment that would result in positive student outcome. The hypothesis and intervention should focus on those variables that are alterable within the school setting. These alterable variables include learning goals and objectives (what is to be learned), materials, time, student-to-teacher ratio, activities, and motivational strategies.” p. 95 Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.

13 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 13 ‘Protective Factors’: Empowering Teachers “Some factors in students’ lives (such as family divorce, moving frequently, drug use, and poor teaching) lower the probability that these students will learn and/or get along with others. These are often referred to as risk factors…Risk factors do not assure student failure. Risk factors simply make the odds of failure greater. Aligning assessment and instruction allows teachers…to introduce new factors into the student’s life that raise the probability of learning. These are often called protective factors since they protect against the risks associated with risk factors…The use of protective factors to raise the probability of learning is often referred to as resilience.” Source: Hosp, J. L. (2008). Best practices in aligning academic assessment with instruction. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.363-376). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

14 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 14 Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery 1.Student services are arranged in a multi-tier model 2.Data are collected to assess student baseline levels and to make decisions about student progress 3.Interventions are ‘evidence-based’ 4.The ‘procedural integrity’ of interventions is measured 5.RTI is implemented and developed at the school- and district-level to be scalable and sustainable over time Source: Glover, T. A., & DiPerna, J. C. (2007). Service delivery for response to intervention: Core components and directions for future research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526-540.

15 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 15 RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’ Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports. Tier 2 Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive interventions targeting specific needs. Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non- responders’ to Tiers I & II may be eligible for special education services, intensive interventions.

16 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 16 Target Student Discrepancy 1: Skill Gap (Current Performance Level) Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level ‘Dual-Discrepancy’: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003) Discrepancy 2: Gap in Rate of Learning (‘Slope of Improvement’)

17 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 17 Tier 1 Core Instruction Tier I core instruction: Is universal—available to all students. Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout the school. Is an ongoing process of developing strong classroom instructional practices to reach the largest number of struggling learners. All children have access to Tier 1 instruction/interventions. Teachers have the capability to use those strategies without requiring outside assistance. Tier 1 instruction encompasses: The school’s core curriculum. Al published or teacher-made materials used to deliver that curriculum. Teacher use of ‘whole-group’ teaching & management strategies. Tier I instruction addresses this question: Are strong classroom instructional strategies sufficient to help the student to achieve academic success?

18 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 18 Tier I (Classroom) Intervention Tier 1 intervention: Targets ‘red flag’ students who are not successful with core instruction alone. Uses ‘evidence-based’ strategies to address student academic or behavioral concerns. Must be feasible to implement given the resources available in the classroom. Tier I intervention addresses the question: Does the student make adequate progress when the instructor uses specific academic or behavioral strategies matched to the presenting concern?

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20 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 20 Complementary RTI Models: Standard Treatment & Problem-Solving Protocols “The two most commonly used RTI approaches are (1) standard treatment and (2) problem- solving protocol. While these two approaches to RTI are sometimes described as being very different from each other, they actually have several common elements, and both fit within a problem-solving framework. In practice, many schools and districts combine or blend aspects of the two approaches to fit their needs.” Source: Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school. Washington, DC: National High School Center. Retrieved from http://www.betterhighschools.org/pubs/ p. 5

21 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 21 RTI Interventions: Standard-Treatment vs. Problem-Solving There are two different vehicles that schools can use to deliver RTI interventions: Standard-Protocol (Standalone Intervention). Programs based on scientifically valid instructional practices (‘standard protocol’) are created to address frequent student referral concerns. These services are provided outside of the classroom. A middle school, for example, may set up a structured math-tutoring program staffed by adult volunteer tutors to provide assistance to students with limited math skills. Students referred for a Tier II math intervention would be placed in this tutoring program. An advantage of the standard- protocol approach is that it is efficient and consistent: large numbers of students can be put into these group interventions to receive a highly standardized intervention. However, standard group intervention protocols often cannot be individualized easily to accommodate a specific student’s unique needs. Problem-solving (Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized research-based interventions match the profile of a particular student’s strengths and limitations. The classroom teacher often has a large role in carrying out these interventions. A plus of the problem-solving approach is that the intervention can be customized to the student’s needs. However, developing intervention plans for individual students can be time-consuming.

22 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 22 Tier 2: Supplemental (Group-Based) Interventions (Standard Treatment Protocol) Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in small-group format. About 15% of students in the typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental intervention support. Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited to 4-7 students. Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should have a shared profile of intervention need. Programs or practices used in Tier 2 interventions should be ‘evidence-based’. The progress of students in Tier 2 interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times per month. Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.

23 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 23 Tier 3: Intensive Individualized Interventions (Problem-Solving Protocol) Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive offered in a school setting. Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions because: –they are found to have a large skill gap when compared to their class or grade peers; and/or –They did not respond to interventions provided previously at Tiers 1 & 2. Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio is flexible but should allow the student to receive intensive, individualized instruction. The reading progress of students in Tier 3 interventions is monitored at least weekly. Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.

24 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 24 Middle & High School: Lack of Consensus on an RTI Model “Because RTI has thus far been implemented primarily in early elementary grades, it is not clear precisely what RTI might look like at the high school level.” Source: Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school. Washington, DC: National High School Center. Retrieved from http://www.betterhighschools.org/pubs/ p. 3

25 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 25 The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools: What Students Should It Serve? Early Identification. As students begin to show need for academic support, the RTI model proactively supports them with early interventions to close the skill or performance gap with peers. Chronically At-Risk. Students whose school performance is marginal across school years but who do not qualify for special education services are identified by the RTI Team and provided with ongoing intervention support. Special Education. Students who fail to respond to scientifically valid general-education interventions implemented with integrity are classified as ‘non-responders’ and found eligible for special education.

26 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Tier 1: The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

27 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 27 Use Time & Resources Efficiently By Collecting Information Only on ‘Things That Are Alterable’ “…Time should be spent thinking about things that the intervention team can influence through instruction, consultation, related services, or adjustments to the student’s program. These are things that are alterable.…Beware of statements about cognitive processes that shift the focus from the curriculum and may even encourage questionable educational practice. They can also promote writing off a student because of the rationale that the student’s insufficient performance is due to a limited and fixed potential. “ p.359 Source: Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., & Kurns, S. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

28 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 28 RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’ Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports. Tier 2 Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive interventions targeting specific needs. Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non- responders’ to Tiers I & II may be eligible for special education services, intensive interventions.

29 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 29 Tier 1 Core Instruction Tier I core instruction: Is universal—available to all students. Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout the school. Is an ongoing process of developing strong classroom instructional practices to reach the largest number of struggling learners. All children have access to Tier 1 instruction/interventions. Teachers have the capability to use those strategies without requiring outside assistance. Tier 1 instruction encompasses: The school’s core curriculum. Al published or teacher-made materials used to deliver that curriculum. Teacher use of ‘whole-group’ teaching & management strategies. Tier I instruction addresses this question: Are strong classroom instructional strategies sufficient to help the student to achieve academic success?

30 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 30 Tier I (Classroom) Intervention Tier 1 intervention: Targets ‘red flag’ students who are not successful with core instruction alone. Uses ‘evidence-based’ strategies to address student academic or behavioral concerns. Must be feasible to implement given the resources available in the classroom. Tier I intervention addresses the question: Does the student make adequate progress when the instructor uses specific academic or behavioral strategies matched to the presenting concern?

31 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI: 6 Steps 1.The teacher defines the student academic or behavioral problem clearly. 2.The teacher decides on the best explanation for why the problem is occurring. 3.The teacher selects ‘evidence-based’ interventions. 4.The teacher documents the student’s Tier 1 intervention plan. 5.The teacher monitors the student’s response (progress) to the intervention plan. 6.The teacher knows what the next steps are when a student fails to make adequate progress with Tier 1 interventions alone. 31

32 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 32 Team Activity: Building Tier 1 Capacity At your tables: Review the video clip of Mr. Grimes’ 9 th -grade math class. Discuss what ‘core instructional practices’ (Tier 1) appear to be missing in the video.

33 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 33 Source: Internet Archive. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from http://www.archive.org/details/Maintain1947 Maintaining Classroom Discipline (1947): Pt. 1 of 3 (4:12)

34 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Engaging the Reluctant Teacher: 7 Reasons Why Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI Interventions Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

35 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 35 ‘Teacher Tolerance’ as an Indicator of RTI Intervention Capacity “I call the range of students whom [teachers] come to view as adequately responsive – i.e., teachable – as the tolerance; those who are perceived to be outside the tolerance are those for whom teachers seek additional resources. The term “tolerance” is used to indicate that teachers form a permissible boundary on their measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a confidence interval. In this case, the teacher actively measures the distribution of responsiveness in her class by processing information from a series of teaching trials and perceives some range of students as within the tolerance.” (Gerber, 2002) Source: Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still the test: Limitations of response to instruction strategies for identifying children with learning disabilities. Paper presented at the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas City, MO.

36 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI & ‘Teacher Reluctance’ The willingness of teachers to implement interventions is essential in any school to the success of the RTI model. Yet general-education teachers may not always see themselves as ‘interventionists’ and indeed may even resist the expectation that they will provide individualized interventions as a routine part of their classroom practice (Walker, 2004). It should be remembered, however, that teachers’ reluctance to accept elements of RTI may be based on very good reasons. Here are some common reasons that teachers might be reluctant to accept their role as RTI intervention ‘first responders’… 36

37 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 37 Engaging the Reluctant Teacher: 7 Reasons Why Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI Interventions Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills necessary to successfully implement academic or behavioral interventions in their content-area classrooms (Fisher, 2007; Kamil et al., 2008). Not My Job. Teachers define their job as providing content-area instruction. They do not believe that providing classwide or individual academic and behavioral interventions falls within their job description (Kamil et al., 2008).

38 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 38 Engaging the Reluctant Teacher: 7 Reasons Why Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI Interventions (Cont.) No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have sufficient time available in classroom instruction to implement academic or behavioral interventions (Kamil et al., 2008; Walker, 2004). No Payoff. Teachers lack confidence that there will be an adequate instructional pay-off if they put classwide or individual academic or behavioral interventions into place in their content-area classroom (Kamil et al., 2008).

39 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 39 Engaging the Reluctant Teacher: 7 Reasons Why Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI Interventions (Cont.) Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if they depart from their standard instructional practices to adopt new classwide or individual academic or behavior intervention strategies, they may lose behavioral control of the classroom (Kamil et al., 2008). ‘Undeserving Students’. Teachers are unwilling to invest the required effort to provide academic or behavioral interventions for unmotivated students (Walker, 2004) because they would rather put that time into providing additional attention to well-behaved, motivated students who are ‘more deserving’.

40 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 40 Engaging the Reluctant Teacher: 7 Reasons Why Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI Interventions (Cont.) The Magic of Special Education. Content-area teachers regard special education services as ‘magic’ (Martens, 1993). According to this view, interventions provided to struggling students in the general-education classroom alone will be inadequate, and only special education services have the power to truly benefit those students.

41 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 41 Team Activity: Engaging the Reluctant Teacher…

42 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Building Teacher Capacity to Deliver Tier 1 Interventions: An 8- Step Checklist Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

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54 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 54 Team Activity: Building Tier 1 Capacity At your tables: Consider the eight steps to building Tier 1 teacher capacity to deliver effective classroom interventions. Discuss the strengths and challenges that your school or district presents in promoting classroom teachers’ appropriate and effective use of Tier 1 interventions. Be prepared to share your discussion with the larger group!

55 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Methods of Classroom Data Collection Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

56 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Classroom Data Sources: Existing records Global skills checklist Rating scales Behavioral frequency count Behavioral log Student work samples Work performance logs Timed tasks (e.g., CBM)

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58 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Existing Records Description: The teacher uses information already being collected in the classroom that is relevant to the identified student problem. Examples of existing records that can be used to track student problems include: –Grades –Absences and incidents of tardiness –Homework turned in 58

59 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Global Skills Checklists Description: The teacher selects a global skill. The teacher then breaks that global skill down into specific, observable ‘subskills’. Each subskill can be verified as ‘done’ or ‘not done’. 59

60 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Global Skills Checklists: Example The teacher selects the global skill ‘organizational skills’. That global skill is defined as having the following components, each of which can be observed:  arriving to class on time;  bringing work materials to class;  following teacher directions in a timely manner;  knowing how to request teacher assistance when needed;  having an uncluttered desk with only essential work materials. 60

61 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Behavioral Frequency Count Description: The teacher observes a student behavior and keeps a cumulative tally of the number of times that the behavior is observed during a given period. Behaviors that are best measured using frequency counts have clearly observable beginning and end points—and are of relatively short duration. Examples include: –Student call-outs. –Requests for teacher help during independent seatwork. –Raising one’s hand to make a contribution to large- group discussion. 61

62 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Behavioral Frequency Count: How to Record Teachers can collect data on the frequency of student behaviors in several ways: Keeping a mental tally of the frequency of target behaviors occurring during a class period. Recording behaviors on paper (e.g., simple tally marks) as they occur. Using a golf counter, stitch counter, or other mechanical counter device to keep an accurate tally of behaviors. 62

63 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Behavioral Frequency Count: How to Compute If student behaviors are being tallied during a class period, frequency-count data can be reported as ‘X number of behaviors per class period’. If frequency-count data is collected in different spans of time on different days, however, schools can use the following method to standardize frequency count data : –Record the total number of behaviors observed. –Record the number of minutes in the observation period. –Divide the total number of behaviors observed by total minutes in the observation period. Example: 5 callouts observed during a 10 minute period = 0.5 callouts per minute. 63

64 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Behavior Log Description: The teacher makes a log entry each time that a behavior is observed. An advantage of behavior logs is that they can provide information about the context within which a behavior occurs.(Disciplinary office referrals are a specialized example of a behavior log.) Behavior logs are useful for tracking ‘low- incidence’ problem behaviors. 64

65 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Behavior Log: Sample Form 65

66 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Rating Scales Description: A scale is developed that a rater can use to complete a global rating of a behavior. Often the rating scale is completed at the conclusion of a fixed observation period (e.g., after each class period). Daily / Direct Behavior Report Cards are one example of rating scales. 66

67 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Daily Behavior Report Card: Daily Version Jim BlalockMay 5 Mrs. WilliamsRm 108

68 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Student Work Samples Description: Work samples are collected for information about the student’s basic academic skills, mastery of course content, etc. Recommendation: When collecting work samples: –Record the date that the sample was collected –If the work sample was produced in class, note the amount of time needed to complete the sample (students can calculate and record this information). –If possible, collect 1-2 work samples from typical students as well to provide a standard of peer comparison. 68

69 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Work Performance Logs Description: Information about student academic performance is collected to provide insight into growth in student skills or use of skills in appropriate situations. Example: A teacher implementing a vocabulary- building intervention keeps a cumulative log noting date and vocabulary words mastered. Example: A student keeps a journal with dated entries logging books read or the amount of ‘seat time’ that she spends on math homework. 69

70 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Timed Tasks (e.g., Curriculum-Based Measurement) Description: The teacher administers structured, timed tasks to assess student accuracy and fluency. Example: The student completes a 2-minute CBM single-skill math computation probe. Example: The student completes a 3-minute CBM writing probe that is scored for total words written. 70

71 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Combining Classroom Monitoring Methods Often, methods of classroom data collection and progress-monitoring can be combined to track a single student problem. Example: A teacher can use a rubric (checklist) to rate the quality of student work samples. Example: A teacher may keep a running tally (behavioral frequency count) of student callouts. At the same time, the student may be self- monitoring his rate of callouts on a Daily Behavior Report Card (rating scale). 71

72 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Activity: Classroom Methods of Data Collection In your teams: Review the potential sources of classroom data that can be used to monitor Tier 1 interventions. What questions do you have about any of these data sources? How can your school make full use of these data sources to ensure that every Tier 1 intervention is monitored? Classroom Data Sources: Existing records Global skills checklist Rating scales Behavioral frequency count Behavioral log Student work samples Work performance logs Timed tasks (e.g., CBM)

73 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Tier 2: Middle & High School Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

74 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 74 Tier 2: Supplemental (Group-Based) Interventions (Standard Treatment Protocol) Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in small-group format. About 15% of students in the typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental intervention support. Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited to 4-7 students. Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should have a shared profile of intervention need. Programs or practices used in Tier 2 interventions should be ‘evidence-based’. The progress of students in Tier 2 interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times per month. Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.

75 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 75 Group-Based Tier 2 Services: How Much Time Should Be Allocated? Emerging guidelines drawn largely from reading research suggest that standard protocol interventions should consist of at least three to five 30-minute sessions per week, in a group size not to exceed 7 students. Standard protocol interventions should also supplement, rather than replace, core instruction taking place in the classroom. Sources: Burns, Al Otaiba, S. & Torgesen, J. (2007). Effects from intensive standardized kindergarten and first-grade interventions for the prevention of reading difficulties. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K. Burns, & A. M. VanDerHeyden (Eds.), Response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 212-222). National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, National Institutes of Health.

76 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 76 K123456789101112 Rdng Fluency Rdng-Basic Comprehension Subject-Area Rdng Comprehension Remediating Academic Deficits: The Widening Curriculum Gap… Reading Fluency Small academic gap (elementary school). Student is only mildly off- level. The building curriculum overlaps the student’s point of ‘instructional match’.

77 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 77 K123456789101112 Rdng Fluency Rdng-Basic Comprehension Subject-Area Rdng Comprehension Remediating Academic Deficits: The Widening Curriculum Gap… Rdng-Basic Comprehension Reading Fluency Widening academic gap (middle school). Student is significantly off-level. The building curriculum barely overlaps the student’s point of ‘instructional match’.

78 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 78 K123456789101112 Rdng Fluency Rdng-Basic Comprehension Subject-Area Rdng Comprehension Remediating Academic Deficits: The Widening Curriculum Gap… Largest academic gap (high school). Student is significantly off-level. The building curriculum does not overlap the student’s point of ‘instructional match’ at all. Rdng-Basic Comprehension

79 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 79 Tier 2 RTI Services: Challenges for Middle & High Schools There are significant challenges in making Tier 2 supplemental intervention services available to secondary students. For example: Scheduling of supplemental intervention services can be difficult Academic needs may vary dramatically across students, making it difficult to recruit Tier 2 groups that have a shared intervention focus Intervention providers may not have sufficient training to identify and remediate off-level student skills Pressure to get the student through current courses may result in Tier 2 becoming ‘homework help & test preparation’

80 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 80 Secondary Level Tier 2 RTI Services: Scheduling Scheduling options for RTI Tier 2 services often represent a compromise. Here are some ideas that schools have adopted at the secondary level to schedule RTI services: ‘ Zero period’. An optional period is added to the start of the school day— students get their electives during this period, freeing up time in the schedule later in the day for Tier 2. Schoolwide RTI period. The school takes a small amount of time from each period (e.g., five minutes) to create a 30-40 minute building-wide RTI period where all students get remediation, review, or enrichment. ‘ Double-Period’ remediation courses. Struggling students are placed in double-period courses (often with push-in staff assistance) to allow additional time, targeting of deficient skills. Scheduling of struggling students in groups. Students with shared ‘at- risk’ profile are placed on a similar schedule to allow them to be placed in intervention services if needed. Those students who make good progress by mid-year are moved to a study hall.

81 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 81 Secondary Level Tier 2 RTI Services: Programming Tier 2 intervention programs may be group- based or computer-administered. A good source for possible Tier 2 intervention programs is the What Works Clearinghouse at: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/

82 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Motivation Intervention: Case Example Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

83 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Problem Justin showed a pattern from the start of the school year of not complying with teacher requests in his English class. His teacher, Mr. Steubin, noted that – when given a teacher directive—Justin would sometimes fail to comply. Justin would show no obvious signs of opposition but would sit passively or remain engaged in his current activity, as if ignoring the instructor. When no task demands were made on him, Justin was typically a quiet and somewhat distant student but otherwise appeared to fit into the class and show appropriate behavior. 83

84 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Evidence Student Interview. Mr. Steubin felt that he did not have a strong relationship with the student, so he asked the counselor to talk with Justin about why he might be non-compliant in English class. Justin told the counselor that he was bored in the class and just didn’t like to write. When pressed by the counselor, Justin admitted that he could do the work in the class but chose not to. Direct Observation. Mr. Steubin noted that Justin was less likely to comply with writing assignments than other in-class tasks. The likelihood that Justin would be non-compliant tended to go up if Mr. Steubin pushed him to comply in the presence of Justin’s peers. The odds that Justin would comply also appeared to increase when Mr. Steubin stated his request and walked away, rather than continuing to ‘nag’ Justin to comply. 84

85 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Evidence (Cont.) Work Products. Mr. Steubin knew from the assignments that he did receive from Justin that the student had adequate writing skills. However, Justin’s compositions tended to be short, and ideas were not always as fully developed as they could be—as Justin was doing the minimum to get by. Input from Other Teachers. Mr. Steubin checked with other teachers who had Justin in their classes. The Spanish teacher had similar problems in getting Justin to comply but the science teacher generally found Justin to be a compliant and pleasant student. She noted that Justin seemed to really like hands-on activities and that, when potentially non-compliant, he responded well to gentle humor. 85

86 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Intervention Mr. Steubin realized that he tended to focus most of his attention on Justin’s non-compliance. So the student’s non compliance might be supported by teacher attention. OR the student’s compliant behaviors might be extinguished because Mr. Steubin did not pay attention to them. The teacher decided instead that Justin needed to have appropriate consequences for non-compliance, balanced with incentives to engage in learning tasks. Additionally, Mr. Steubin elected to give the student attention at times that were NOT linked to non-compliance. 86

87 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Intervention (Cont.) Appropriate Consequences for Non-Compliance. Mr. Steubin adopted a new strategy to deal with Justin’s episodes of non-compliance. Mr. Steubin got agreement from Justin’s parents that the student could get access to privileges at home each day only if he had a good report from the teacher about complying with classroom requests. Whenever the student failed to comply within a reasonable time (1 minute) to a teacher request, Mr. Steubin would approach Justin’s desk and quietly restate the request as a two-part ‘choice’ statement. He kept his verbal interactions brief and neutral in tone. As part of the ‘choice’ statement, the teacher told Justin that if he did not comply, his parents would be emailed a negative report. If Justin still did not comply, Mr. Steubin would follow through later that day in sending the report of non- compliance to the parents. 87

88 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Teacher Command Sequence: Two-Part Choice Statement 1.Make the request. Use simple, clear language that the student understands. If possible, phrase the request as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative ( don’t ) statement. (E.g., “Justin, please start your writing assignment now.” ) Wait a reasonable time for the student to comply (e.g., 1 minute)

89 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Teacher Command Sequence: Two-Part Choice Statement 2.[If the student fails to comply] Repeat the request as a 2-part choice. Give the student two clear choices with clear consequences. Order the choices so that the student hears negative consequence as the first choice and the teacher request as the second choice. (E.g., “Justin, I can email your parents to say that you won’t do the class assignment or you can start the assignment now and not have a negative report go home. It’s your choice.” ) Give the student a reasonable time to comply (e.g., 1 minute).

90 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Teacher Command Sequence: Two-Part Choice Statement 3. [If the student fails to comply] Impose the pre- selected negative consequence. As you impose the consequence, ignore student questions or complaints that appear intended to entangle you in a power struggle.

91 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Intervention (Cont.) Active Student Engagement. Mr. Steubin reasoned that he could probably better motivate the entire class by making sure that lessons were engaging. He made an extra effort to build lessons around topics of high interest to students, built in cooperative learning opportunities to engage students, and moved the lesson along at a brisk pace. The teacher also made ‘real- world’ connections whenever he could between what was being taught in a lesson and ways that students could apply that knowledge or skill outside of school or in future situations. 91

92 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Intervention (Cont.) Teacher Attention (Non-Contingent). Mr. Steubin adopted the two-by-ten intervention (A. Mendler, 2000) as a way to jumpstart a connection with Justin. The total time required for this strategy was 20 minutes across ten school days. 92

93 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 93 Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With Students: The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler, 2000) Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for 10 consecutive days in building a relationship with the student…by talking about topics of interest to the student. Avoid discussing problems with the student’s behaviors or schoolwork during these times. Source: Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating students who don’t care. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

94 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 94 Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With Students: The Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) Give positive attention or praise to problem students at least three times more frequently than you reprimand them. Give the student the attention or praise during moments when that student is acting appropriately. Keep track of how frequently you give positive attention and reprimands to the student. Source: Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

95 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Non-Compliance The Outcome The strategies adopted by Mr. Steubin did not improve Justin’s level of compliance right away. Once the teacher had gone through the full ten days of the ‘two by ten’ intervention, however, Mr. Steubin noticed that Justin made more eye contact with him and even joked occasionally. And the student’s rate of compliance then noticeably improved—but still had a way to go. Mr. Steubin kept in regular contact with Justin’s parents, who admitted about 8 days into the intervention that they were not as rigorous as they should be in preventing him from accessing privileges at home when he was non-compliant at school. When the teacher urged them to hold the line at home, they said that they would –and did. Justin’s behavior improved as a result, to the point where his level of compliance was typical for the range of students in Mr. Steubin’s class. 95

96 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Secondary-Level Academic Tier 1 Intervention: Case Example Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

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98 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Tier 1 Case Example: Patricia: Reading Comprehension

99 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension The Problem A student, Patricia, struggled in her social studies class, particularly in understanding the course readings. Her teacher, Ms. Cardamone, decided that the problem was significant enough that the student required some individualized support. 99

100 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension The Evidence Student Interview. Ms. Cardamone met with Patricia to ask her questions about her difficulties with social studies content and assignments. Patricia said that when she reads the course text and other assigned readings, she doesn’t have difficulty with the vocabulary but often realizes after reading half a page that she hasn’t really understood what she has read. Sometimes she has to reread a page several times and that can be frustrating. 100

101 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension The Evidence (Cont.) Review of Records. Past teacher report card comments suggest that Patricia has had difficulty with reading comprehension tasks in earlier grades. She had received help in middle school in the reading lab, although there was no record of what specific interventions were tried in that setting. Input from Other Teachers. Ms. Cardamone checked with other teachers who have Patricia in their classes. All expressed concern about Patricia’s reading comprehension skills. The English teacher noted that Patricia appears to have difficulty pulling the main idea from a passage, which limits her ability to extract key information from texts and to review that information for tests. 101

102 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension The Intervention Ms. Cardamone decided, based on the evidence collected, that Patricia would benefit from training in identifying the main idea from a passage, rather than trying to retain all the information presented in the text. She selected two simple interventions: Question Generation and Text Lookback. She arranged to have Patricia meet with her during an open period to review these two strategies. During that meeting, Ms. Cardamone demonstrated how to use these strategies effectively with the social studies course text and other assigned readings. 102

103 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Question Generation Students are taught to boost their comprehension of expository passages by (1) locating the main idea or key ideas in the passage and (2) generating questions based on that information. http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/ rdngcompr/qgen.php

104 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Text Lookback Text lookback is a simple strategy that students can use to boost their recall of expository prose by identifying questions that require information from the text and then looking back in the text in a methodical manner to locate that information. http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/ rdngcompr/txtlkbk.php

105 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension Documentation and Goal-Setting Ms Cardamone filled out a Tier 1 intervention plan for the student. On the plan, she listed interventions to be used, a checkup date (4 instructional weeks), and data to be used to assess student progress. Data: Ms. Cardamone decided that she would rate the student’s grasp of text content in two ways: –Student self-rating (1-3 scale; 1=don’t understand; 3 = understand well) –Quiz grades. She collected baseline on both and set a goal for improvement. 105

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107 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Example: Reading Comprehension The Outcome When the intervention had been in place for 4 weeks, Ms. Cardamone noted that Patricia appeared to have a somewhat better grasp of course content and expressed a greater grasp of material from the text. She shared her intervention ideas with other teachers working with Patricia. Because Patricia’s self-ratings of reading comprehension and quiz grades met the goals after 4 weeks, Ms. Cardamone decided to continue the intervention plan with the student without changes. 107

108 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Screening & Monitoring Student Progress at the Secondary Level Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

109 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 109 RTI Literacy: Assessment & Progress-Monitoring To measure student ‘response to instruction/intervention’ effectively, the RTI model measures students’ academic performance and progress on schedules matched to each student’s risk profile and intervention Tier membership. Benchmarking/Universal Screening. All children in a grade level are assessed at least 3 times per year on a common collection of academic assessments. Strategic Monitoring. Students placed in Tier 2 (supplemental) reading groups are assessed 1-2 times per month to gauge their progress with this intervention. Intensive Monitoring. Students who participate in an intensive, individualized Tier 3 intervention are assessed at least once per week. Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.

110 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 110 Local Norms: Using a Wide Variety of Data (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008) Local norms can be compiled using: Fluency measures such as Curriculum-Based Measurement. Existing data, such as office disciplinary referrals. Computer-delivered assessments, e.g., Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) from www.nwea.org Source: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 225-242). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

111 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 111 Universal Screening at Secondary Schools: Using Existing Data Proactively to Flag ‘Signs of Disengagement’ “Across interventions…, a key component to promoting school completion is the systematic monitoring of all students for signs of disengagement, such as attendance and behavior problems, failing courses, off track in terms of credits earned toward graduation, problematic or few close relationships with peers and/or teachers, and then following up with those who are at risk.” Source: Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., & Hess, R. (2008). Best practices in increasing the likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.. p.1090

112 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 112 Curriculum-Based Measurement: Advantages as a Set of Tools to Monitor RTI/Academic Cases Aligns with curriculum-goals and materials Is reliable and valid (has ‘technical adequacy’) Is criterion-referenced : sets specific performance levels for specific tasks Uses standard procedures to prepare materials, administer, and score Samples student performance to give objective, observable ‘low-inference’ information about student performance Has decision rules to help educators to interpret student data and make appropriate instructional decisions Is efficient to implement in schools (e.g., training can be done quickly; the measures are brief and feasible for classrooms, etc.) Provides data that can be converted into visual displays for ease of communication Source: Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM. New York: Guilford.

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122 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Team Activity: Creating a Screening Plan for Your Middle or High School Review the measures just discussed for screening students at the middle and high school level. Have a discussion about what measures you might use in a screening program for your school. Who would be involved in developing such a screening plan? When would it start? 122

123 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI Intervention Teams in Middle & High Schools: Challenges and Opportunities Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

124 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 124 RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’ Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports. Tier 2: Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive interventions targeting specific needs. Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non- responders’ to Tiers I & II may be eligible for special education services, intensive interventions.

125 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 125 Tier 3: Intensive Individualized Interventions Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive offered in a school setting. Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions because: –they are found to have a large skill gap when compared to their class or grade peers; and/or –They did not respond to interventions provided previously at Tiers 1 & 2. Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio is flexible but should allow the student to receive intensive, individualized instruction. The reading progress of students in Tier 3 interventions is monitored at least weekly. Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.

126 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 126 Tier 3 Interventions Are Developed With Assistance from the School’s RTI (Problem-Solving) Team Effective RTI Teams: Are multi-disciplinary and include classroom teachers among their members Follow a structured ‘problem-solving’ model Use data to analyze the academic problem and match the student to effective, evidence-based interventions Develop a detailed research-based intervention plan to help staff with implementation Check up on the teacher’s success in carrying out the intervention (‘intervention integrity’)

127 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 127 The Problem-Solving Model & Multi-Disciplinary Teams A school consultative process (‘the problem-solving model’) with roots in applied behavior analysis was developed (e.g., Bergan, 1995) that includes 4 steps: –Problem Identification –Problem Analysis –Plan Implementation –Problem Evaluation Originally designed for individual consultation with teachers, the problem- solving model was later adapted in various forms to multi-disciplinary team settings. Source: Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2), 111-123.

128 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 128 How Is a Secondary RTI Team Like a MASH Unit? The RTI Team must deal with complex situations with limited resources and tight timelines, often being forced to select from among numerous ‘intervention targets’ (e.g., attendance, motivation, basic skill deficits, higher-level deficits in cognitive strategies) when working with struggling students. The ‘problem-solving’ approach is flexible, allowing the RTI Team quickly to sift through a complex student case to identify and address the most important ‘blockers’ to academic success. Timelines for success are often short-term (e.g., to get the student to pass a course or a state test), measured in weeks or months.

129 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 129 Team Roles Coordinator Facilitator Recorder Time Keeper Case Manager

130 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Step 1: Assess Teacher Concerns 5 Mins Step 2: Inventory Student Strengths/Talents 5 Mins Step 3: Review Background/Baseline Data 5 Mins Step 4: Select Target Teacher Concerns 5-10 Mins Step 5: Set Academic and/or Behavioral Outcome Goals and Methods for Progress-Monitoring 5 Mins Step 6: Design an Intervention Plan 15-20 Mins Step 7: Plan How to Share Meeting Information with the Student’s Parent(s) 5 Mins Step 8: Review Intervention & Monitoring Plans 5 Mins RTI Team Consultative Process

131 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 131 RTI Team Effectiveness Self- Rating Scale

132 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 132 As a group, use the RTI Team Self-Rating Scale to evaluate your current student problem- solving team’s level of functioning. If your school does not have a formal problem- solving team in place, rate your school’s current informal problem-solving efforts. Appoint a spokesperson to share your findings with the large group. Small-Group Activity: Complete the RTI Team Effectiveness Self-Rating Scale Effective RTI Teams: Are multi-disciplinary and include teachers among their members Follow a structured ‘problem-solving’ model Use data to analyze the academic problem and match the student to effective, evidence-based interventions Develop a detailed research-based intervention plan to help staff with implementation Check up on the teacher’s success in carrying out the intervention (‘intervention integrity’)

133 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 133 Discuss the problem-solving team that your middle or high school uses to create individualized RTI intervention plans for students. What are strengths of your team? What are areas of your team’s functioning that could be targeted for improvement? Small-Group Activity: Rate Your RTI Problem- Solving Team Effective RTI Teams: Are multi-disciplinary and include teachers among their members Follow a structured ‘problem-solving’ model Use data to analyze the academic problem and match the student to effective, evidence-based interventions Develop a detailed research-based intervention plan to help staff with implementation Check up on the teacher’s success in carrying out the intervention (‘intervention integrity’)

134 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI Teams: Improving Problem-Solving Through Effective Case Management Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

135 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org

136 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Prior to an initial RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting, it is recommended that a case manager from the RTI Team schedule a brief (15-20 minute) ‘pre-meeting’ with the referring teacher. The purpose of this pre-meeting is for the case manager to share with the teacher the purpose of the upcoming full RTI Team meeting, to clarify student referral concerns, and to decide what data should be collected and brought to the RTI Team meeting. 136

137 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps Here is a recommended agenda for the case manager-teacher pre-meeting: 1. Explain the purpose of the upcoming RTI Problem- Solving Team meeting: The case manager explains that the RTI Team meeting goals are to (a) fully understand the nature of the student’s academic and/or behavioral problems; (b) develop an evidence- based intervention plan for the student; and (c) set a goal for student improvement and select means to monitor the student’s response to the intervention plan. 137

138 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps 2. Define the student referral concern(s) in clear, specific terms.. The case manager reviews with the teacher the most important student referral concern(s), helping the teacher to define those concern(s) in clear, specific, observable terms. The teacher is also prompted to prioritize his or her top 1-2 student concerns. Note: Review the Academic Enabler Observational Checklists on p. 68. 138

139 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps 3. Decide what data should be brought to the RTI Team meeting. The case manager and teacher decide what student data should be collected and brought to the RTI Team meeting to provide insight into the nature of the student’s presenting concern(s). 139

140 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps 140

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142 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org Case Manager: Tips If you discover, when you meet with a referring teacher prior to the RTI Team meeting, that his or her concern is vaguely worded, help the teacher to clarify the concern with the question “What does [teacher concern] look like in the classroom?” After the RTI Team meeting, consider sending periodic emails to the referring teacher(s) asking them how the intervention is going and inviting them to inform you if they require assistance. 142

143 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 143 Team Activity: Defining the RTI Team ‘Pre- Meeting’ At your table: Discuss how your school can structure the ‘pre-meeting’ in which the case manager and teacher meet to clarify the teacher’s referral concern(s) and to decide what data to bring to the actual RTI Team meeting. Brainstorm ideas for finding the time for such ‘pre-meetings’.

144 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI Problem-Solving Teams: Promoting Student Involvement Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

145 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 145 Intervention Responsibilities: Examples at Teacher, School-Wide, and Student Levels Signed agenda ‘Attention’ prompts Individual review with students during free periods Lab services (math, reading, etc.) Remedial course Homework club Teacher School-Wide Take agenda to teacher to be reviewed and signed Seeking help from teachers during free periods Student

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147 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: Promoting Student Involvement Schools should strongly consider having middle and high school students attend and take part in their own RTI Problem-Solving Team meetings for two reasons. First, as students mature, their teachers expect that they will take responsibility in advocating for their own learning needs. Second, students are more likely to fully commit to RTI intervention plans if they attend the RTI Team meeting and have a voice in the creation of those plans. 147

148 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: Promoting Student Involvement Before the RTI Team Meeting. The student should be adequately prepared to attend the RTI Team meeting by first engaging in a ‘pre-meeting’ with a school staff member whom the student knows and trusts (e.g., school counselor, teacher, administrator). By connecting the student with a trusted mentor figure who can help that student to navigate the RTI process, the school improves the odds that the disengaged or unmotivated student will feel an increased sense of connection and commitment to their own school performance (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006). 148

149 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: Promoting Student Involvement A student RTI ‘pre-meeting’ can be quite brief, lasting perhaps 15-20 minutes. Here is a simple agenda for the meeting: Share information about the student problem(s). Describe the purpose and steps of the RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting. Stress the student’s importance in the intervention plan. Have the student describe his or her learning needs. Invite the student to attend the RTI Team meeting. 149

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151 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: Promoting Student Involvement During the RTI Team Meeting. If the student agrees to attend the RTI Team meeting, he or she participates fully in the meeting. Teachers and other staff attending the meeting make an effort to keep the atmosphere positive and focused on finding solutions to the student’s presenting concern(s). As each intervention idea is discussed, the team checks in with the student to determine that the student (a) fully understands how to access or participate in the intervention element being proposed and (b) is willing to take part in that intervention element. If the student appears hesitant or resistant, the team should work with the student either to win the student over to the proposed intervention idea or to find an alternative intervention that will accomplish the same goal. At the end of the RTI Team meeting, each of the intervention ideas that is dependent on student participation for success is copied into the School Success Intervention Plan. 151

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153 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org RTI: Promoting Student Involvement After the RTI Team Meeting. If the school discovers that the student is not carrying out his or her responsibilities as spelled out by the intervention plan, it is recommended that the staff member assigned as the RTI contact meet with the student and parent. At that meeting, the adult contact checks with the student to make sure that: the intervention plan continues to be relevant and appropriate for addressing the student’s academic or behavioral needs the student understands and call access all intervention elements outlined on the School Success Intervention Plan. adults participating in the intervention plan (e.g., classroom teachers) are carrying out their parts of the plan. 153

154 Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 154 Starting RTI in Your Secondary School: Enlisting students in intervention plans As a team: Talk about strategies to prepare students to be self-advocates in taking responsibility for their own learning. Discuss ways to motivate students to feel comfortable in accessing (and responsible FOR accessing) intervention resources in the school.


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