Presentation on theme: "Module 27 Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory."— Presentation transcript:
Module 27 Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory
Inattentional Blindness We only notice what we attend to: Visual Cognition Lab
Forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure Information never enters long-term memory External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding failure leads to forgetting
Forgetting Forgetting as encoding failure Which penny is the real thing?
Forgetting Ebbinghaus forgetting curve over 30 days-- initially rapid, then levels off with time 123451015202530 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 Time in days since learning list Percentage of list retained when relearning
Retrieval Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory External events Attention Encoding Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory
Forgetting as Interference Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information Proactive (forward acting) Interference disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
In this demonstration, you’ll see three words at a time. Try to remember the three words. After you see the three words, you’ll see a 3- digit number. Count backwards, by 3’s from this number until you see the instructions to “WRITE DOWN THE WORDS” fifteen seconds later. Let’s practice counting backwards by 3’s from the number 99 before we begin.
Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it
Forgetting- Interference Motivated Forgetting people unknowingly revise memories Repression defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Memory Construction We filter information and fill in missing pieces Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution) Was it a dream or real?
Memory Construction Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned Depiction of actual accident Leading question: “About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” Memory construction
Source Amnesia is linked with - Memories of Abuse Repressed or Constructed? Child sexual abuse does occur Some adults do actually forget such episodes False Memory Syndrome condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
Piaget’s Story Creating False Memories Schemas sometimes drive memories Memory Construction
Eyewitness Identification / Recall – 60 Minutes – Picking Cotton (Part I), Bunny Effect http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/03/06/60m inutes/main4848039.shtml 60 Minutes – Part II (line ups and identification) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4V6aoYuDcg https://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~glwells/thee yewitnesstest.html Memory Construction
Infantile Amnesia Most don’t remember much prior to 4 th birthday Competing hypotheses as to why: Decay Freudian argument of regression Intellectual development Schematic framework is different State/context dependent learning Remember difference between semantic and episodic memory
Memory Construction Most people can agree on the following: Injustice happens Incest happens Forgetting happens Recovered memories are commonplace Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
Improve Your Memory Study repeatedly to boost recall Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material Make material personally meaningful Use mnemonic devices associate with peg words--something already stored make up story chunk--acronyms
Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation and mood Recall events while they are fresh-- before you encounter misinformation Minimize interference Test your own knowledge rehearse determine what you do not yet know