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ESPON 2.1.5: Territorial Impacts of European Fisheries Policy Third Interim Report Prepared for the Salzburg Seminar 13-14 March 2006 Ove Langeland, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, (NIBR), Norway
Key findings Diagnosis – development of the Fisheries sector –CFP: Main territorial impacts of the conservation policy: Capture fisheries sub-sector: Fleet reduction, decreased value of landed catch - employment reduction Aquaculture: Increased volume, value + employment Processing industry: Employment reduction in some countries, increased landings from non-EU countries (globalisation) –Fisheries sector in Norway and Iceland Capture fisheries sub-sector; Resource situation relatively good - reduced employment (technological changes) Aquaculture: Increased volume, value + employment Processing industry: More difficult - factory trawlers, globalisation effects Integrated Coastal Zone Management –Spatial planning systems must cover both the terrestrial part and the marine part of the coastal zone (land and water) –ICZM demands both horizontal and vertical co-ordination Example studies for analysing impacts within the fishery sector 1.Mapping on ESPON-space – country level 2.National implementation for selected countries – NUTS 3 3.Example studies on lower geographical level for tracing possible territorial impacts of the fisheries policy
SWOT analysis of the capture fisheries sub-sector in EU15
SWOT analysis of the aquaculture sub-sector in EU15
Aquaculture productions total (in live weight) 1990, 1996 and 2002
SWOT analysis of the processing sub-sector in EU15
Integrated Coastal Zone management ICZM - coordinate different and competing interests in the coastal zone, a holistic and long run perspective, ICZM - a new style of governance - partnership involve all relevant stakeholder interest, integrated solutions - the local and regional level. Integration of ICZM and the EU Marine strategy policy The EU Demonstration programmes (1996-1999): The spatial planning system alone has some limitations to secure the idea of ICZM: –cover both the terrestrial part and the marine part of the coastal zone –too narrow focus on development control rather than a broader ICZM focus - necessary to combine economic instruments to the planning system. The Interreg IIC project Norcoast (1998-2000): Combine the best elements of the statutory spatial planning system with the best elements of the voluntary partnership approach in order to achieve integrated solutions: –an open and inclusive decision process does not alone increase the integration capacity of the regional planning – integration at regional level is only possible if the higher levels of administration provide an integrated legal and institutional context.
Project focus – ESPON Space Mapping covering ESPON Space - 29 countries (EU25+2+2) Focus on coastal regions and fisheries dependent areas Statistical analyses on NUTS 3 level (difficult to trace impacts, lack of data) Using example studies on lower geographical levels - possible to trace impacts
Example studies – findings related to economic and social cohesion in fisheries dependent areas Demography: Depopulation- declining population and unbalanced age-structure (ageing) Employment: Decrease in employment in the fisheries sector, particularly in capture and processing industry, tendencies to concentration and urbanisation Income: Reduction in relation to national average Regional development: Remote areas, problems with accessibility NB: Difficult to isolate the impacts of fisheries policy on employment, demography etc. Changes may be part of more general trends in remote/peripheral areas
Share of employees in Norwegian fisheries. NUTS3. 2005
Share of employees in fisheries at two geographical levels - NUTS 3 and LAU 2. 2005
Share of employees in aquaculture. NUTS3. 2005
Share of employees in aquaculture at two geographical levels – NUTS 3 and LAU 2. 2005
General policy recommendations –Counteract impacts of CFP which contradict aims of cohesion, territorially balanced development and polycentrism – different impacts in different regions –The development in urban-rural relations in the fisheries should be governed by thoughts about polycentric development Policy recommendations related to environmental impacts and ICZM –Better integration of the terrestrial and marine environment in coastal planning and other ICZM activities –Combine the statutory spatial planning system and the voluntary partnership approach to achieve integrated solutions, and flexible planning approaches. –Need for a regional approach across the municipalities and other administrative borders regarding the development of the industry Policy recommendations related to social cohesion –Better co-coordination of the implementation of economic measures in CFP (the FIFG) and the fish resource regulation policy –The interplay between fisheries policies implemented on national and European level should be better integrated –European sector policies of the fisheries should be adjusted in accordance with the European territorial policies on reduction of social cohesion differences on the European territory Draft policy recommendations
Research gaps: –Lack of data on relevant geographical level –Difficult to obtain data –Data for primary industries not separated for fisheries and agriculture Further research (ESPON II) –Common data collection from Eurostat for ESPON- space –Utilise better the potential of national data for lower geographical level when such data are available, focus on the micro level Further research
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