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THE COLD WAR Chapter 22.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR Chapter 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COLD WAR Chapter 22

2 Section 1 Cold War -- confrontation and competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Soviet Union -- Communist since the Bolshevik Revolution U.S. -- Capitalist WWII is over but conflict quickly arises between the 2 former allies Soviet focus after WWII -- securing borders and keeping occupied lands U.S. focus after WWII -- stabilizing economies and democracy

3 The Cold War

4 Yalta Conference The Big 3 (FDR, Churchill and Stalin) met to discuss their Post War plans 1. Set up the Gov. of Poland -- would remain Soviet friendly communist until they could hold free elections 2. Declaration of Liberated Europe - “right to choose” - elections 3. Divided Germany and Berlin into 4 separate zones (one controlled by France, Britain, U.S., and U.S.S.R.) 4. Germany would pay some war reparations but not like WWI -- Soviets would get some industrial equipment for their side

5 Sect. 1 cont. Harry S. Truman becomes the 33rd President when FDR dies in 1945 Truman is very anti-communist Soviets violate the rules of the Yalta conference Truman meets Stalin in the Potsdam conference Stalin -- wanted Germans to pay for damages of the war Truman -- against reparations, he thought they would only weaken Germany’s already weak economy He offers Stalin equipment from the other zones of Germany

6 Sect. 1 cont. Pro-communist countries and satellite nations -- meaning they would remain under communist control / friendly to the USSR -- Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia Winston Churchill refers to the IRON CURTAIN -- those countries under communist control after WWII were separated from the rest of Europe IRON CURTAIN

7 Section 2 Long Telegram -- when U.S. diplomat George Kennan explained his views of Soviet goals compared to U.S. goals Russian sense of insecurity of the West Fear of the West (U.S. and W. Europe) Communists would have a long-term struggle with Capitalists Kennan proposed the American cold war policy ----- Containment of Soviet expansion and the spread of communism Containment -- keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic and military action

8 Section 2 - cont. Crisis in Iran March both the U.S. (S) and USSR(N) had troops in Iran during WWII to secure a supply line -- After WWII Soviet troops didn’t leave - Stalin demanded access to Iran’s oil and the U.S. demanded Soviet withdrawal sending the USS Missouri into the Med. Sea and the soviets backed down

9 Sect. 2 - cont. Truman Doctrine -- after Soviets attempted to control the Dardanelles and Bosporus of Turkey (trade route area) the U.S. decided to confront the Soviets before they controlled the entire Middle East. The goal of the Doctrine was to CONTAIN communism and aid E. Europe/Middle East to fight communism The Soviets also launched guerilla war in Greece -- the British went to the Greeks aid Dardanelles Bosporus

10 Sect. 2 - cont. Marshall plan -- Sec. of State George Marshall’s plan to help rebuild the European economy in an effort to help contain communism. The Soviet Union and it’s satellite nations rejected this. Billions of $ helped W. Europe reject communism BERLIN crisis -- U.S. , France and Britain merged their parts of Germany into one called the Fed. Rep. of Germany or WEST Germany (capitalism) East Germany was controlled by the Soviet Union (communism)

11 Timeline 1945 -- WWII is over
allies unite W. Germany they could have no military but otherwise ind. Soviets cut traffic between the East and West U.S. begins to airlift supplies to the West (364 days) NATO established (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) original Western countries Warsaw Pact -- pact between USSR and satellite countries allowed Germany to re - arm and join NATO

12 Berlin Airlift

13 China after WWII Civil War in China
Chaing Kai Shek -- Nationalist leader of China since the 20’s. U.S. sent millions to help them in the 1940’s In 1949 Mao Tse -Tung overthrew Chaing and became the communist leader of China Nationalists fled to Taiwan and China was a communist country Chaing Mao

14 KOREAN WAR CH. 22 sect. 2 June 25, North Korea invades S. Korea (republic of Korea) Korea was divided at the 38th parallel North allied with the USSR South supported by the U.S. June 30th, Truman orders ground forces into South Korea Douglas MacArthur -- took command of a joint UN fighting force

15 Stages of the War 1. By Aug N. Korea captured nearly all of S. Korea (including Seoul -- the capital of S.K.) 80% of the troops were American and ill prepared for battle. Troops pushed all the way to Pusan, S.K. 2. Americans launch a surprise invasion at Inchon, far behind North Korean lines -- cut off N. K. forces and forced them to retreat --2 weeks the U.N. controlled most of S.K. # #2

16 Stage 3, 4 and 5 of War 3. U.S. changed plans and decided to try and reunify Korea into one Continued to push north all the way to the Yalu river Received threat from China 4. Chinese troops get involved and push the U.N. back to the 38th parallel 5. The U. N. does push them back across the parallel for a short time but Truman responds with a limited war -- a war fought to win a specific obj. (South Korea’s ind) #3 and #5

17 End of notes on the war April Truman fires MacArthur for not listening to him and replaces him with Mathew Ridgeway July armistices signed with N. Korea Boundary remains the 38th parallel Results of the war -- 33,600 Americans die in action 2800 die of disease and accidents

18 Ch. 22 sect. 3 Igor Gouzenko - Soviet clerk, walked out of the Embassy in Canada/ defected and gave the U.S. info. On the USSR having the bomb Fear of the United States: Subversion -- USSR goal to weaken the U.S. and overthrow U.S. Gov. Loyalty Review Board -- set up in the U.S. to screen all federal employees before hiring FBI -- intensive search for traitors / 2000 of their agents quit Director of the FBI was J. Edgar Hoover HUAC - House Un- American Activities Committee urged to hold public hearings Whitaker Chambers -- Time magazine editor - revealed Gov. officials and communists in the U.S. Gov.

19 Sect. 3 cont. Alger Hiss -- most prominent communist in Roosevelt’s cabinet Julius and Ethel Rosenberg -- husband and wife that were executed for spying on the U.S. Gov. in N.Y. Klaus Fuchs -- British scientist sent info. To the USSR The U.S. Gov. had intercepted this code -- Project Venona - goals to crack Soviet codes and prove Soviet spying Hiss Rosenberg’s Fuchs

20 Joseph McCarthy -- Sen. From Wisconsin that made vague and unfounded charges of suspect communists. Sparked the McCarran Act - deeper investigation of communists Army - McCarthy hearings - spring Senate censured McCarthy Fall - out - radiation left after nuclear blast

21 Sect. 4 notes 1952 election Rep. - Dwight D. Eisenhower vs. Dem. Adlai Stevenson Eisenhower becomes the 34th President -- war hero (D-Day) Massive Retaliation -- Eisenhower’s policy to threaten use of nuclear weapons Nov. 1, first hydrogen bomb tested

22 Sect. 4 Oct. 4 , 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik -- 1st artificial satellite to orbit space 1958 NASA created to coordinate research in rocket science and space exploration National Defense and Education Act -- Gov. funds for education and training in science ,math, and foreign language John Foster Dulles - sec. of state under Eisenhower

23 Sec. 4 continued Suez crisis
Egypt seized control of the Suez canal from the British Britain invaded Egypt, USSR supports Egypt U.S. tells Britain to back off and let Egypt control the canal CIA -- hidden missions to keep an eye on communists / enemies in the world Iran - Shah is returned to power Guatemala - set up new Gov.

24 End of sect. 4 Nikita Khrushchev - leader of the USSR after Stalin (1956) Hungary -- uprising there in which the USSR ended it with tanks U-2 spy plane incident - U.S. spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Union Francis Gary Powers - pilot was captured by the Soviets Eisenhower lied to Khrushchev and he found out and cancelled the Paris summit Nikita Khrushchev Francis Gary Powers

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