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Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood

2 Physical, Perceptual and Language Development
Developmental psychology - changes that occur as an individual matures Grasping reflex - infants clinging response to a touch (born with this) Rooting reflex - infants clinging response to a touch

3 Physical Develoment Avg. weight 7.5 lbs. (95% - 5.5-10 lbs)
Maturation - the internally programmed growth of a child Figure 3.2 on page 64 shows average physical and motor development (raise head 2 months, walking 12.1 months) Infants prefer to look at human faces and patterned materials Visual cliff - Depth perception (learned) very young crawlers would crawl right over the glass.

4 Development of language
Is language learned or inborn? Language is easier early in life 1. Make signs 2. Learn the meaning of the signs 3. Grammar Telegraphic speech - verbal utterances of children, words are left out but you still know the meaning “Daddy Fall Down” Language chart p. 68 1 yr - baba, 2 yr - more ball, 3 yr - Don’t go, 4 yr -Why is Jenny crying, 5 yr - I see what you did

5 Section 2 - Cognitive and Emotional Development
Cognitive Development - intellectual development Schema - mental representations of the world - needed for young kids to understand the world, or for anyone to understand a new concept Assimilation - try to fit a new object into the schema Accommodation - we change our schema to fit a new object (stacking a block example) Object permanence - something exists without being able to touch or see it

6 Sect. 2 continued Representational thought - picture something in the mind Conservation - quantity doesn’t change when appearance does (cup example) Egocentric - young child’s inability to understand another person’s perspective Imprinting - Inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli (baby geese) Critical period - a time in development when skills are learned easily

7 Jean Piaget - Stages of Cognitive Development
1 - Sensorimotor (Birth - 2) - smile, lift head, grasp, obtain desired objects 2. Preoperational (Age 2 - 7) acquiring language, creative play, can’t tell the difference between real and imagination 3. Concrete Operational (Age ) conversation, may have changed shape but still there, cause and effect 4. Formal operations (12 - adult) think abstract and scientifically, invision things, see risks and benefits, think logical and deduct things

8 Sect. 3 - Parenting Styles
4 types: 1. Authoritarian 2. Permissive 3. Uninvolved 4. Democratic / authoritative - confident of their own values Positive features of #4 Establish limits, warmth and support, assume responsibility gradually, children identify with parents

9 Sect. 3 continued Child abuse million cases reported ( low birth weight / special needs) Socialization - learning rules of behavior for your culture boys v. girls (rules can be unclear) FREUD - stages of development 1. Oral stage (8-18 months) pleasure from mouth 2. Anal stage (11/2 - 3) functions of elimination , potty training 3. Phallic Stage (3 - 6 ) pleasure from genitals , rival for parent of the opposite sex , identify with aggressor Boy = father

10 Freud continued 4. Latency stage - 6 to puberty
sublimination - sexual thoughts repressed, develops social and intellectual skills 5. Genital stage - puberty - adult sexual desires renewed build relationships

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