Presentation on theme: "Global Independence Movement and Struggles Post - WWII."— Presentation transcript:
Global Independence Movement and Struggles Post - WWII
Objectives 1.We will be able to describe the factors that led to decolonization. 2.We will be able to identify the problems associated with the independence of India. 3.We will be able to assess the different influences on the Congo’s and Ghana’s independence. 4.We will be able to analyze the goals of foreign nations in Afghanistan.
Decolonization=To allow a colony to become self- governing and independent What forces led to the end of European colonial empires? Education & information acquired by Asians & Africans. “Lessons” on equality, democracy, revolution, government, natural rights, etc. caused people to take action for freedom. World Wars Asians and Africans questioned European “progress” The winners of both wars talked of freedom... Some acted on it. Cost of colonies Nationalism!
INDIA World War II - World War II - post-pones attempts at Independence the Indian National Congress party Gandhi and the Indian National Congress party were Hindu The Muslim League The Muslim League – Muhammad Ali Jinnah Feared discrimination Demanded a Separate nation – Pakistan
INDIA New nations August 15, 1947 India India – Hindu Pakistan Pakistan - Muslim Partition of India Dividing of India into separate Hindu and Muslim Nations
INDIA Refugee Violence-1 Million Dead Muslims slaughtered by Hindus and Sikhs Hindus slaughtered Muslims Gandhi was devastated by the division Spoke out against it- “What is there to celebrate? I see nothing but rivers of blood”—Gandhi He was assassinated by a Hindu radical
INDIA Nuclear Arms Race Pakistan and India both possess nuclear weapons Growing Population Overtake China by 2035 but racked with social and religious problems India is the Worlds Largest Democracy Two major parties: – Pro Hindu part – Pro separation of religion/government party
Ghana Ghana (The Gold Coast) – 1957 Kwame Nkrumah leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast Overseeing the nation's independence from British colonial rule in 1957 Used strikes and boycotts to succeed The first President and Prime Minister of Ghana Spends on industrialization, health and welfare, education (EXPENSIVE) 20th-century advocate of Pan-Africanism-a movement for cooperation between all people of African descent and political union of an independent Africa Ghana has moved back forth from civilian and military control since 1966 Sub-Sahara African De-Colonization
Republic of Congo- “Prize to be won in the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union.” Belgium left behind chaos and civil war Fighting continues…. 1955 - publishes a "30-Year Plan" for granting the Congo increased self-government. 1959 – Belgium begins to lose control over events in the Congo following serious nationalist riots in Leopoldville—Turmoil continues until 1965 1965-1997—Army Colonel Joseph Mobutu (Sese Seko) takes Control Supported by the U.S. (Cold War)—Key location in Africa and natural resources Brutal Dictator and Corrupt Makes Billions but no need for U.S. to support after Cold War Sub-Sahara African De-Colonization
1800s-Russia (for Indian Ocean) and Britain (Protection) Fight for Land 1900s-Efforts for Democracy Fails 1970s-Mujahideen fight against Soviet-supported government 1979-1989-Soviets unsuccessfully invade and lose (U.S. supports Afghan rebels) 1990s-Taliban-Conservative Islamic group-takes control – Harbors al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden –U.S. removes Taliban 12/2001 2014-Possible successful pass of power from Hamid Karzai in elections and withdraw of troops at end of 2014-Will Taliban come back? Afghanistan-A Long Struggle