Stratification strata What does the root word stratamean? How fossils are formed Becoming a Fossil
Relative Dating estimating the age of something compared to something else
Absolute Dating RadioMetric Dating Video: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/3/l_033_01.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/3/l_033_01.html
radioactive:decay of nuclei of unstable atoms half-life uranium 238 = 4.5billion yrs uranium lead C 14 up to 40,000yrs C 14 C 12 half life 5700 If a piece of rock is found with a Lead:Uranium ratio of 7:1, how old is the rock?
Comparative Embryology "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" each embryo has to repeat the adult stages of its biological predecessors Haeckel was a fraud!
Comparative Biochemistry DNA sequence and protein molecules What is the adjacent picture called? What is the name of the process which generates it?
Homologous Structures Similar in design, different in function
Divergent Evolution offspring of a common (similar) ancestor diverge b/c they are adapted by different environments Adaptive Radiation process by which ancestral species evolve into a number of diff species
Analogous Structures similar in function different in design offspring nonrelated (different) ancestors converge b/c they are adapted by similar environments Speed and stealth in the water
Divergent, Convergent & Parallel Evolution Make a Venn comparing the 3 types of evolution. 3 facts per group.
Hummingbird flowers What kind of evolution do these flowers exhibit? Why?
Co-Evolution When two different organisms change in response to each other How many bees are on the screen? Write your answer and then watch the videos. Evolution of CamouflageEvolution of Camouflage: Orchard Wasps
Mimicry Will the REAL stinging insect please stand up! How many stinging insects on the screen? Mimicry only works if there are more _____________
Vestigial structures a structure or organ that has no apparent use if organisms use the minimal amount of E to survive,why would they use E to form a structure that has no use?
Theories of Evolution Empedocles Aristotle Linnaeus Lamarck Cuvier Lyell Wallace/DarwinDarwin Stanley/Gould Write at least 1 fact about each theorist.
Lamarck & Acquired Characteristics Acquired characteristics traits acquired during life can be passed to offspring Theory of Use & Disuse what we use gets larger and what we dont gradually disappears
Natural Selection (Darwin & Wallace)Darwin Overproduction Struggle for existence/ Competition Variation within a species Survival of the fittest problem: how did variations arise? How does Evolution Really Work
Overproduction Thomas Malthus "Essay on Principles of Population" Malthus geometric/expo nential progression (vs arithmetic)
Directional Selection Selection against one extreme Fit to be ONE extreme
Stabilizing Selection Selection against both extremes Fit to be AVERAGE
Disruptive Selection Selection against the average It is fit to be BOTH extremes
Give a plausible example of each of the 2 types of speciation. Give a plausible example of each of the 3 types of selection. Making a Cladistic: Try the following activity: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/family/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/family/
Why Does Evolution Matter Now? Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance Biological Invaders