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Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years

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1 Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years
U.S. History Unit 6 The Post Civil War Years

2 The Post Civil War Years
SSUSH11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.

3 Industrial Growth Railroads and the West
Played a major role in this industrial growth and expansion west Farmers, ranchers had easier access to eastern markets Union Pacific (eastern company) and Central Pacific (Sacramento, CA company) built the transcontinental railroad The two companies joined their tracks at Promontory, Utah in 1869 Large numbers of Irish and Chinese immigrants helped build the railroad – very dangerous, many died or were injured


5 Industrial Growth Railroads and Big Business
Railroads contributed to rise of the steel industry and big business Henry Bessemer developed a method for making steel known as the Bessemer process Steel could be made cheaper, became more affordable – leading to faster expansion of railroads and constructions Buildings became taller (skyscrapers)

6 Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business
A few men got rich developing the railroad industry – known as “robber barons” Crooked in their dealings Cornelius Vanderbilt: extended his New York Central railroad to reach Chicago in 1869 Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industry Sold his business to J.P. Morgan for $500 million – Carnegie became the richest man in the world

7 Industrial Growth Giants of Big Business Continued…
John D. Rockefeller established the nation’s first trust, Standard Oil (a trust is a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system) Trusts destroy competition by creating monopolies (only one supplier of a product) Used vertical integration – one corporation owns the company that produced the finished product and that provides the necessary materials

8 Industrial Growth Thomas Edison Most impactful inventor
Phonograph recorded sound Motion picture camera eventually made movies possible most remembered for the Electric light bulb Transformed people’s lives; could work at night in factories, homes, offices Came up with the idea for central power companies

9 Review 1. What role did railroads play in opening the West and contributing to the rise of big business? 2. Chinese and Irish immigrants are remembered for A. their contributions to the steel industry. B. their contributions to building the nation’s railroads. C. their refusal to work for giant’s of big business. D. working together to found the nation’s first trust.

10 Review 3. John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry by
A. refusing to use railroads to ship his products. B. focusing only on oil production and allowing other people’s companies to supply him with the materials he needed for production. C. establishing a trust. D. hiring large numbers of Chinese workers. 4. Describe the impact of Thomas Edison’s light bulb.

11 Western Growth SSUSH12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.

12 Western Growth Reasons for Moving West
Religious faith – Christian missionaries attempted to spread their message to Native Americans Mormons moved west to escape persecution Gold motivated others (California Gold Rush of 1849) Became the leading reason for conflict between white settlers and Native Americans Available land also drew people west

13 California Gold Rush

14 Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining
Settlers had to live in sod houses John Deere’s steel plow allowed farmers to plant crops in the Midwest and plains by enabling them to cut through the tough prairie sod Windmills allowed farmers to harness the wind’s power to pump water to the surface Railroads allowed farmers to import needed equipment from the East and shipping products

15 Western Growth Farming, Ranching, and Mining Continued…
Cattle ranching techniques were learned from the Mexicans – also taught settlers how to herd, raise, and drive cattle to market Imitated Mexican dress (cowboy hats, chaps) “Cowtowns” popped up as settlements where ranchers could be herded onto trains and shipped east to market Mining industry became important because of the discovery of gold Mining camps/towns famous for gambling, prostitution, drinking Corporations eventually dominated industry

16 Western Growth Women, Immigrants, and African Americans out West
Women experienced greater freedom; took on nontraditional roles Chinese and Irish immigrants came to work on the railroad African Americans moved west after the Civil War (Black Exodus) Served as cowhands and soldiers (Buffalo Soldiers)

17 Buffalo Soldiers

18 Impact on Native Americans
Buffalo and Reservations Plains Indians depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelter Settlers and fur trappers killed great numbers of buffalo By 1889, 1,000 buffalo were left on the continent Native Americans were forced onto reservations (land set aside by the government) Constantly moved whenever gold was discovered


20 Impact on Native Americans
Violent Confrontations Sometimes Native Americans resisted white settlement Cheyenne warriors launched several raids on mining camps in 1861 US forces killed 270 Native American women and children Sioux Indians, under chiefs Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, and US general George Custer engaged in the Battle of Little Bighorn Sioux killed Custer and 200 of his men (“Custer’s last stand) – last great victory for Native Americans



23 Impact on Native Americans
Violent Confrontations Continued… Nez Perce tribe killed several white settlers when the US government attempted to remove them from the Oregon Territory Chief Joseph attempted to escape with his tribe to Canada but was stopped 30 miles from the border Forced to settle on reservations in Oklahoma Many died from sickness and malnutrition

24 Impact on Native Americans
Wounded Knee the last notable armed conflict between US troops and Native Americans occurred in 1890 at Wounded Knee Sioux believed the Ghost Dance would bring back the buffalo, get back lost land, and banish the white man from earth Sioux leader Sitting Bull was accused of mounting an uprising Soldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull and killed him in a gunfight During a pursuit of the Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek 150 Native Americans were killed (most unarmed)

25 Review 1. Which of the following would be the best way to describe the US government’s approach to dealing with Native Americans on the frontier? A. Negotiations, in which the aim was to share land peacefully with the tribes that had lived there for generations. B. Compensation, in which the US government paid tribal leaders whatever amount of money the two sides agreed the land was worth. C. Barter, in which Native Americans surrendered land in exchange for citizenship rights and the guarantee of being given land for families to own and farm. D. Conquest, in which the United States used its military to take Native American lands and relocate tribes to areas designated by the US government.

26 Review 2. Describe what occurred at Wounded Knee and tell why it is significant. 3. What role did African Americans and women play in western expansion?

27 Urban Growth and Immigration
Urban Growth (Growth of US Cities) When cities increase in size it is called urban growth Out west, new towns grew out of nothing because of railroads and western settlements In the East, population increased due to industrialization and job opportunities New York City saw the biggest growth

28 Urban Growth and Immigration
Most immigrants in the East came from Europe Immigrants on the West coast came China Some came seeking a better life, others to escape political persecutions By 1880, 80% of New Yorkers were foreign born


30 Immigration Ellis Island Angel Island
Opened in 1892 to handle large numbers of immigrants Located on a tiny island near the Statue of Liberty Cultural pluralism is the presence of many different cultures within one society Angel Island Located in San Francisco Accepted Asian (mostly Chinese immigrants)

31 Immigration Problems and Concerns Caused by Immigration
Many Americans looked at immigrants negatively – felt they were taking jobs Ethnic ghettos – neighborhoods where immigrants from a certain region or country tended to live together (seen as a sign of disloyalty by natives) Religious differences – most US citizens were Protestants, arriving immigrants were Catholics Before the Civil War most immigrants came from western Europe – Protestant whites At the end of 19th century/early 20th century immigrants came from eastern and southern Europe – Catholic, Jewish

32 Immigration Nativism and Restriction on Immigration
Nativism – opposing immigration Grew, anti-immigrant groups formed; immigrants became victims of violence and discrimination Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the US; repealed in 1943

33 Living and Working Conditions
Whole families had to work because of low wages Men, women, children worked in mills and factories – 12 hrs. a day, six days a week Child labor became a common practice Children as young as five worked in factories Work hours were long, wages low, conditions dangerous Private contractors set up sweatshops (makeshift factories-poorly lit, poorly ventilated, unsafe)


35 Living and Working Conditions
Living conditions were hard many migrants and immigrants lived in urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) in housing called tenements (overcrowded apartments that housed several families) There were open sewers that attracted rats Air was dark and polluted from steam engines and boilers Fire hazards


37 The New Urban Lifestyle and Entertainment
Transportation changed Electric trolleys followed by subways and trains allowed people to live outside the inner city Development of suburbs – middle and upper class moved further out Urban factory workers worked by the clock and had time for leisure and entertainment Men frequented saloons; women enjoyed dance halls and cabarets; families went to amusement parks and vaudeville shows Movie industry and spectator sports became popular (boxing, horse racing, baseball)


39 Review 1. Which of the following statements would a nativist most support? A. “Since the US is suppose to be the land of the free and the country of opportunity, then let all those who desire freedom and a better life come to the U.S.” B. “immigration is bad for this country. Immigrants take jobs that otherwise would go to those born here, and their ways pollute and corrupt our way of life. We need laws to prevent immigration.” C. “Cultural diversity is a good thing. It is our differences and the way foreigners hold on to their traditional ways that make our nation great.” D. “God bless the Irish, the Polish, and the Jewish immigrant. Give ‘em a home here, I say. But blast the Chinese. Keep ‘em out by all means.

40 Review 2. What were some of the living and working conditions faced by poor laborers and immigrants to the US in the big cities? 3. How did industrialization and urban growth affect lifestyle in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

41 The Rise of Labor Unions
Samuel Gompers and the AFL Labor unions – organizations of workers formed to protect the interests of its members Grew out of poor working conditions American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the most influential – led by Samuel Gompers Focused on wages, working hours, working conditions – used strikes, boycotts Also believed in collective bargaining (negotiate as a group), mediation (use a neutral third party- decisions legally binding), arbitration (mediating third party’s decision is legally binding)

42 The Rise of Labor Unions
Strikes and Confrontations Employers hated unions and took measures against them Some threatened to fire workers who were members Turned to courts to intervene in strikes Pullman Strike 1894 George Pullman fired employees who protested the laying off of workers, then closed the plant Eugene V. Debs led a boycott of Pullman cars nationwide Pres. Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike because it affected US mail Set a precedent for factories to involve courts to end strikes

SSUSH13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era. 43

44 REASONS FOR EXPANSION IMPERIALISM – toward end of 19th century new U. S. attitude developed to reach beyond its borders and acquire more territory Reasons More markets Economic growth National security National pride Moral obligation of the whites to civilize and take democracy to the rest of the world 44

45 ISOLATIONISM Isolationism:
U. S. should not acquire control over foreign territories; Would cause U. S. to be pulled into foreign conflicts; Contradicted the principles of freedom and self-government on which the U. S. was founded 45

46 THE PACIFIC Pacific was area expansionists in U.S. turned their attention Wanted trade with China and other nations in Southeast Asia William Seward, Secretary of State, purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 Thirty years later purchased Hawaii These two purchases opened trade routes across Pacific and gained valuable territory 46

depression hit west coast of U. S.; people resented cheap labor of Chinese immigrants; racism and acts of violence increased; In 1882 Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 that prohibited further immigration from China for 10 years; after extended and remained in effect until 1943. 47

48 SPANISH AMERICAN WAR Causes: abuse by Spaniards of Cubans in concentration camps in late1800s; U. S. newspaper articles about abuse (often exaggerated); people wanted U. S. to intervene War starts: February 15, 1898; USS Maine exploded while anchored in a Cuban Harbor; Newspapers blamed Spain; U. S. demanded war U. S. declared War April 1898 Asst. Sec. of Navy Theodore Roosevelt, resigned and led a group known as “Rough Riders” War lasted 3 months U. S. gained Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam Platt Amendment – put limits on what Cuba government could do; gave U. S. 2 Naval bases in Cuba; stayed in effect until 1930s Philippines became a possession of the U. S. 48

49 USS MAINE – explodes Havana Harbor

50 Theodore Roosevelt led “Rough Riders”

PANAMA CANAL- Theodore Roosevelt president; Leased land across the isthmus of Panama to build a canal to connect Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean Provided economic and military interests U. S. controlled land until December 1999 51


53 ROOSEVELT COROLLARY “BIG STICK” Diplomacy – “speak softly and carry a big stick” (US would not be threatening, but would not hesitate to use force to protect interest) Issued 1904 Expanded Monroe Doctrine Modified it by saying that the US had the right to intervene in the region if a nation had trouble paying debts Roosevelt used collection as excuse to occupy territories in Caribbean or Latin America 53

54 Big Stick Diplomacy 54

55 REVIEW QUESTIONS What were some of the arguments used to support US expansion? Someone who opposed US expansion and involvement in foreign affairs is known as what? a. an imperialist c. an expansionist b. An isolationist d. a mercantilist 3. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and why was it passed? What was Roosevelt’s Corollary and how did it expand upon the Monroe Doctrine? Theodore Roosevelt’s attitude about US expansions can best be described as a. Isolationist c. Imperialist b. Uninterested d. fearful 55

56 PROGRESSIVES SSUSH14 - Explain America’s evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century 56

57 PROGRESSIVE ERA Time Period: turn of the twentieth century
Beginning of political, social and economic change in the United States Progressives – those who supported reforms during the Progressive Era White, middle class, protestants Government should regulate society 57

58 PROGRESSIVE ERA Types of government regulations
More regulation of business Improve wages for workers Work environment Laws governing morality Define standards for education Stricter regulations over doctors, teachers and lawyers Lower class needed the help of the Middle class to decide what was best for them 58

59 MUCKRAKERS DEFINED: writers during the Progressive period that exposed abuse in government and big business President Theodore Roosevelt labeled these authors and journalists “muckrakers” because they uncovered the “muck” in U. S. society Muckrakers: Lincoln Steffens – exposed political corruption in St. Louis and other cities Ida Tarbell – abuses in the Standard Oil trust Upton Sinclair – most famous; published novel The Jungle in 1906; exposed the truth about the meat packing industry; led to the creation of a federal meat inspection program 59

60 MUCKRAKERS Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair 60

61 ROLE OF WOMEN Jane Addams – “mother of social work”; opened Hull House, a settlement house; settlement houses established in poor neighborhoods; helped fight for and win new child labor laws Carrie Nation – led temperance movement; blame alcohol for society’s problems; many leaders were churchgoers and women; ratified 18th amendment in 1919 – prohibited the making, selling or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the U.S.; later failed and was repealed 61

Women’s suffrage movement – began at Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, women demanded suffrage (right to vote) Major leaders – Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1920 – Congress passed the 19th Amendment and after ratification by states women had the right to vote nationwide 62

63 Women’s Suffrage 63

Jim Crow laws – common throughout South; allowed segregation; 1896 Supreme court case Plessy vs. Ferguson upheld separate, but equal W. E. B. Dubois – started Niagara Movement (group of black intellectuals); helped start the NAACP in 1909; devoted to progress of the African American community 64

65 W. E. B. Dubois 65

Living Conditions – reform where poor, urban laborers and immigrants lived How the Other Half Lives – by Jacob Riis; revealed cramped spaces, filthy conditions and dangerous hazards found in the tenements (small, low-income apartments) Contributed to New York passing first laws aimed at improving urban tenements Labor Laws – wanted shorter days; higher wages, and safer work environments; led to passage of legislation…minimum wage, shorter work week and safer conditions 66

67 POLITICAL REFORMS 17th Amendment – established that U.S. senators would be elected directly by the people, rather that by state legislatures Other Reforms Initiative – allowed citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it up Recall – gave citizens power to hold special election to remove corrupt officials from office before end of their term Referendum – public officials would be elected by popular vote, rather than by party bosses, or state legislatures 67

68 REVIEW QUESTIONS a. Social worker c. progressive politician
Ida Tarbell is best described as a a. Social worker c. progressive politician b. Muckraker d. founding member of NAACP Which of the following actions would be illegal under Jim Crow laws a. White citizens joining the NAACP b. African Americans receiving PhDs. c. Progressives supporting segregation. d. Blacks and whites riding together on a train. 3. What were the progressive changes established by the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments? 4. How did progressives feel about government regulations of society? What were their reasons for these views? 68

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