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Unit 5 Notes Slavery, Secession, and Civil War

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1 Unit 5 Notes Slavery, Secession, and Civil War
U.S. History Unit 5 Notes Slavery, Secession, and Civil War

2 Unit 5 SSUSH8: Explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

3 Tension Over Slavery Slavery – system in which African Americans were bought, sold, and owned like property. Continued to rise during the mid-19th century. Southern politicians fought to uphold slavery because the South’s plantation depended heavily on agriculture and large plantations North’s economy was more industrialized Many northern states had emancipated (freed) their slaves by the mid-1800s


5 Tension Over Slavery I. State’s Rights
Supporters believed the federal government should only have powers specified in the Constitution; all other powers should be left to the states II. South Carolina Nullification Crisis South Carolina protested high tariffs (taxes on imports) on British goods Believed tariffs helped rich, northern businessmen, while hurting small landowners and southern plantations

6 Tension Over Slavery South Carolina Nullification Crisis Cont’d…
John C. Calhoun (SC senator, former VP for Jackson) wrote Exposition and Protest in which he argued for states’ rights and advocated the doctrine of nullification (belief that states could disobey federal laws they believed to be unconstitutional) South Carolina threatened to secede (leave the Union) if the tariffs were not repealed Pres. Jackson threatened to hang Calhoun and send federal troops to SC to prevent secession

7 Tension Over Slavery South Carolina Nullification Crisis
Senator Henry Clay proposed a compromise The tariff would be gradually eliminated over ten years This ended the crisis but hardened sectionalism (regional differences that divide the country) III. Slaves and Abolitionists Slaves and Free Blacks Most blacks were in the antebellum (pre-Civil War) South were slaves in the 1800s Second Middle Passage – sale of slaves from the Upper South (VA, MD, KY, MO) to the Deep South and West

8 Tension Over Slavery Slaves and Free Blacks Continued…
Families were often separated from each other, never to see other again White slaveholders justified slavery by appealing to paternalism: the idea that they were actually caring for and nurturing their slaves – believed blacks needed “care” and “nurturing” and had been “rescued” from “savage” and “uncivilized” societies in Africa There were some free blacks living in slave states who had purchased their freedom or were freed by masters Still did not enjoy the same rights as whites

9 Tension Over Slavery The Abolitionist Movement
Advocated the abolition of slavery William Lloyd Garrison – founder of antislavery newspaper The Liberator in 1831 and established the American Anti-Slavery Society Grimke sisters (Sarah and Angelina) – members of a prominent slaveholding family in South Carolina; gave passionate anti-slavery speeches

10 Tension Over Slavery The Abolitionist Movement Continued…
Frederick Douglass –escaped from slavery, educated himself; became a prominent speaker for the abolition of slavery; helped John Brown plan the Harper’s Ferry raid Nat Turner’s Rebellion Turner was a preacher and slave who believed he was on a divine mission (from God) to deliver his people from slavery; organized a revolt in August 1831 160 blacks and whites were killed Strict slave codes were enacted in the South Turner was hanged along with 19 others

11 Tension Over Slavery IV. Slavery and New Territories
Acquiring new western territories intensified the debate over slavery The Missouri Compromise Northern states wanted new states to be free; southern states wanted new states to be slave (there was an equal balance in Senate) Missouri applied for statehood in 1819 (would upset the balance) The Missouri Compromise – Missouri entered as a slave state, Maine as a free state; southern boundary was set at 36 30’ – states north would be free, states south would be slave


13 Tension Over Slavery The Wilmot Proviso
Pennsylvanian congressman David Wilmot put forth a proviso (condition) proposing to ban slavery from any land purchased from Mexico after the War with Mexico Supported by northerners, denounced by southerners Voted down in Congress

14 Tension Over Slavery Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state and declared unorganized western territories free Utah and New Mexico could decide based on the idea of popular sovereignty (the will of the majority); people living in these territories could vote to allow or not allow slavery Included a provision for the Fugitive Slave Law: required northern states to forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South (very unpopular in the North so they refused to obey it)



17 Tension Over Slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854, allowed unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to choose to permit or not slavery by popular sovereignty; repealed the Missouri Compromise Supporters of slavery and abolitionists rushed to Kansas; there were armed clashes between two groups (“Bleeding Kansas”) Sen. Charles Sumner of MA opposed slavery; congressman Preston Brooks of SC supported slavery Brooks beat Sumner with a cane on the Senate floor almost killing him – Sumner was out for 3 years Beating was an example of the passionate debate over slavery


19 Tension Over Slavery The Dred Scott Decision
1857, Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri who traveled with his master to a free state and lived there for four years, then was returned to Missouri His owner died, Scott sued for his freedom Supreme Court ruled that Scott had no right to sue, slaves are not citizens they are property Struck down the Missouri Compromise as a violation of the Fifth Amendment – due process

20 Tension Over Slavery John Brown’s Raid
October 1859, radical abolitionist John Brown attacked the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Wanted to seize weapons and give them to slaves for an armed rebellion Federal troops under Colonel Robert E. Lee surrounded the arsenal and forced Brown to surrender Brown was hanged

21 Review 1. State’s rights is best defined as the belief that
A. the federal government should tell the states what to do. B. states should not have slaves. C. states should oppose tariffs. D. states should be able to decide most matters for themselves.

22 Review 2. John C. Calhoun is best described as
A. a southern hero and supporter of state’s rights. B. a southern hero who opposed state’s rights. C. a radical abolitionist. D. the first Southern president. 3. The Missouri Compromise, Wilmot Proviso, and Compromise of 1850 were all designed to A. end slavery in the South. B. emancipate slaves. C. extend slavery to new US territories. D. deal with the issue of slavery in new territories.

23 Review 4. What was the abolitionist movement and who were some of its leaders? 5. Who was John Brown and what impact did his raid on Harper’s Ferry have?

24 Secession and Civil War
SSUSH9: Identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

25 Secession and Civil War
I. Lincoln and the Election of 1860 Republican Party (northern Democrats who opposed slavery, Whigs, Free Soilers) New party opposed the extension of slavery into new territories Abraham Lincoln, congressman from Illinois chosen to run for president in 1860 Slavery was a hot-button issue South Carolina seceded (withdrew) from the Union in response to Lincoln’s candidacy; six other states followed: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas Seceded states formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis president

26 Secession and Civil War
II. Fort Sumter the issue of slavery had torn the country apart War was inevitable, but Lincoln wanted the South to hit first When Lincoln sent food to Union troops in South Carolina – Confederate forces opened fire This was considered an attack on the Union and Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers Slaves states in the upper South (border states) Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and northwest Virginia stayed in the Union; rest of Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee joined the Confederacy The capital of the Confederacy moved from Montgomery, AL to Richmond, VA The Civil War had begun

27 Fort Sumter

28 Secession and Civil War
III. Key Figures of the Civil War Abraham Lincoln: president of the U.S. during the Civil War; first Republican president in history Ulysses S. Grant: Union general; defeated the South and accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse; later the 18th president of U.S. William T. Sherman: Union general of western forces; captured Atlanta in 1864 and burned city to the ground on his “march to the sea”

29 Union General Ulysses S. Grant

30 Union General William T. Sherman

31 Secession and Civil War
Key Figures of the Civil War Continued… Jefferson Davis: first and only president of the Confederate States of America Robert E. Lee: command of the Confederate army; won several victories for the South; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson: Confederate general and right-hand man of Robert E. Lee; won the Battle of Chancellorsville; was later accidentally shot by one of his own men

32 Confederate General Robert E. Lee

33 Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

34 Secession and Civil War
IV. Lincoln and the War The Anaconda Plan The First Battle of Bull Run (aka First Manasses) was the first confrontation between the two sides Union forces were defeated – war would be longer than expected Gen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan: surround the Confederacy, cutting off supply lines; restricted southern trade and communications by seizing control of the Mississippi River, cutting Confederate territory in half, instituting coastal blockades Smugglers got around the blockade, getting supplies to the South

35 Anaconda Plan

36 Secession and Civil War
Lincoln’s Political Struggles Declared martial law in Maryland, suspended habeas corpus (guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without going before a judge) jailed strongest supporters of the Confederacy Designed to keep Maryland from seceding Established a draft: policy in which the government selects individuals for military service Wealthy citizens could pay $300 or hire substitutes

37 Secession and Civil War
Lincoln’s Political Struggles Continued… 100 people killed, 11 African Americans lynched in draft riots in New York City Copperheads were Union Democrats who criticized Lincoln and the war; encouraged Union soldiers to desert (abandon) the army

38 Secession and Civil War
The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation: freed slaves in the Confederate States, maintaining slavery in the border states Kept border states loyal to the Union Gave the war a moral focus, undermined the South’s reliance on slave labor Encouraged free African Americans to serve in the Union army; integrated on ships, but segregated in the army (54th Massachusetts regiment – all black)

39 Secession and Civil War
Election of 1864 and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Sherman’s capture of Atlanta signaled that Union victory was at hand Lincoln won reelection in 1864 In his second inaugural address Lincoln expressed that slavery was evil and his desire to reunite the nation

40 Secession and Civil War
V. Key Battles of the Civil War The Eastern Theater (fronts) Robert E. Lee’s first major victories came at the Second Battle of Bull Run (aka Second Manassas) Ended Union hopes of invading Richmond Antietam (September 17, 1862) Union Gen. McClellan found a copy of Lee’s orders at an abandoned Confederate camp Bloodiest single day of the war, halted Confederate advance McClellan allowed Lee’s army to slip away, gets fired by Lincoln

41 Battle of Antietam

42 Secession and Civil War
Key Battles of the Civil War Continued… Chancellorsville (May 1-5, 1863) “Lee’s perfect battle” – thanks to Stonewall Jackson, Lee’s army defeated more than 70,000 Union troops with only 40,000 Confederate soldiers Jackson was accidentally shot by his own troops while scouting the enemy’s position at night Left Lee without his most talented and reliable commander

43 Secession and Civil War
Key Battles of the Civil War Continued… Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) Turning point in the war Union Gen. Meade defeated Lee’s army and ended any hope the South could invade the North 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, or missing Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War Lincoln gave his famed Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery on the sight short, powerful affirmation of Lincoln’s desire to reunite the nation

44 Gettysburg

45 Secession and Civil War
The Western Theater Vicksburg (May 15 - July 4, 1863) Vicksburg, MS was the last Confederate obstacle to total Union control of the Mississippi River Grant laid siege to Vicksburg for almost two months (cutting supplies, starving enemy) By July 4, residents were eating horses, mules, dogs, rats

46 Battle of Vicksburg

47 Secession and Civil War
Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea (May – December 1864) Grant took command of the eastern forces and put Sherman in charge of his western forces May 1864, Sherman began invasion of Georgia – Atlanta was important because of its railway hub; could disrupt the South’s major rail lines Confederate Gen. Johnston tried to halt Sherman’s advance

48 Secession and Civil War
Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea (May – December 1864) Continued… Johnston and Sherman had a series of small, bloody fights July 8, Sherman flanked Johnston’s army, crossing over the Chattahoochee River Jefferson Davis replaced Johnston Sherman’s Atlanta campaign placed the city under Union control and reignited support for Lincoln Sherman began a march from Atlanta to Savannah – his march to the sea in which he destroyed the city

49 Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign

50 Secession and Civil War
VI. Union Victory Grant began a campaign to crush the Confederate army in a series of head-to-head confrontations Engaged Lee in a number of bloody battles Lee’s army was surrounded in Virginia April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse This ended the war

51 Secession and Civil War
Union Victory The Union had several advantages Larger population – more men, labor force to produce supplies and keep economy running More railroads – to move supplies efficiently, quickly More industry – factories produced weapons, ammunition, clothes, blankets in larger supply than south The South had a fiery determination and excellent military leaders

52 Review 1. Why did the South fear the election of Abraham Lincoln?
A. They knew that Lincoln was an adamant supporter of “popular sovereignty.” B. Lincoln had run a platform of abolishing slavery throughout the nation. C. Lincoln openly supported the Dred Scott decision. D. They feared that he would seek not only to prevent slavery in new territories, but to end it in the South also.

53 Review 2. It was a major turning point in the war that ended the South’s hopes of successfully invading the North. In addition, many believe that had Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson been alive the South would have won this battle and quite possible, the war. Which battle was it? A. Gettysburg B. Antietam C. Vicksburg D. Chancellorsville

54 Review 3. How did Sherman’s taking Atlanta greatly impact the election of 1864? A. It allowed Lincoln to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in Georgia, thereby assuring that only Lincoln’s supporters went to the polls. B. It inspired faith in military generals, thereby leading to Gen. McClellan being nominated for president. C. It assured people in the North that victory was in sight, thereby increasing the popularity of Pres. Lincoln and allowing him to win re-election. D. It led to Lincoln’s defeat because he lost the support of Southerners whom Sherman had abused.

55 Review 4. What was the Emancipation Proclamation, what impact did it have on the role of African Americans in the Civil War, and why did it have this impact? 5. Describe some of the advantages the Union had during the war and explain how they contributed to the Confederacy’s defeat.

56 Southern Reconstruction
SSUSH10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.

57 Southern Reconstruction
I. Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans Presidential Reconstruction Lincoln proposed a plan for rebuilding rather than punishing the South Before he could put his plan into place, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth while watching a play at Ford’s Theater

58 Southern Reconstruction
Presidential Reconstruction Continued… Vice President Andrew Johnson became president Southerner, one-time slave owner, loyal to Union Put his own plan for reconstruction into place Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction plan: Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union were pardoned Former Confederate states could hold constitutional conventions and set up state governments States had to void secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which ended slavery Once the amendment was ratified, states could hold elections and be part of the Union

59 Southern Reconstruction
Presidential Reconstruction Continued… The plan left the same Southerners who led the Confederacy in positions of influence Southern states enacted black codes to limit the rights of freed blacks to points similar to slavery Had curfews, could be forced into labor for vagrancy, had to work for whites for at least a year

60 Southern Reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction Radical Republicans were members of the Republican party who favored much tougher stance with former Confederate states believed Johnson did not do enough to offer blacks full citizenship rights Felt Congress should oversee Reconstruction not the president

61 Southern Reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction Continued… Under Radical Reconstruction: 1. Southern states were put under military rule. 2. Southern states had to hold new constitutional conventions. 3. African Americans were allowed to vote. 4. Southerners who had supported the Confederacy were not allowed to vote (temporarily). 5. Southern states had to guarantee equal rights to African Americans. 6. Southern states had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment which made African Americans citizens of the U.S.

62 Southern Reconstruction
Federal Legislation Prior to Lincoln’s death, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, ending slavery throughout the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to give citizenship rights to freed slaves Johnson vetoed, Congress overrode the veto Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to prevent the courts from overturning the Civil Rights Act – guaranteed life, liberty, property Finally, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment which granted the right to vote to African American men

63 Southern Reconstruction
Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec. of War Edwin Stanton because he was closely tied to the Radical Republicans Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, voted to impeach (charge with wrongdoing) President Johnson Johnson’s presidency was spared by one vote in the Senate

64 Southern Reconstruction
II. African Americans and Reconstruction Farming and the Freedmen’s Bureau Blacks had to adjust to life after slavery With no land or money, many had to turn to sharecropping – farming a portion of a white landowner’s land in return for housing a share of the crop Others turned to tenant farming – paid rent to farm land and owned crops they grew Both systems kept blacks working on white-owned land

65 Southern Reconstruction
Farming and the Freedmen’s Bureau Cont’d… Freedmen’s Bureau was created in 1865 to help freed slaves First federal relief agency in US history Provided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and land Ended in 1869 because of lack of support

66 Southern Reconstruction
Education and the Church African American churches were one of the few institutions truly owned and controlled by African Americans Centers for social and political life; ministers became leaders of community Blacks sought education With the help of the Freedmen’s Bureau the first black schools were established Children and adults attended Morehouse College was founded first as Atlanta Baptist Seminary in 1867 – called the “black Harvard”

67 Southern Reconstruction
Politics and Social Debate 600 African Americans served in southern state legislatures, a few were elected as lieutenant-governors, one served as acting governor of Louisiana

68 Southern Reconstruction
White Resistance Ku Klux Klan secretive organization whose members often dressed in hooded white robes Used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and keep them from exercising newly acquired rights Carpetbaggers were northerners who came South to do business; they were resented by Southerners Scalawags were southern Republicans who supported Reconstruction; targeted by the KKK

69 Ku Klux Klan

70 Southern Reconstruction
The End of Reconstruction In the controversial election of 1876, Democrats agreed to give the presidency to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in exchange for loosening its grip on the southern states and removing troops from the South This ended Reconstruction and gave rise to the KKK Southern states passed Jim Crow laws that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities

71 Jim Crow

72 Southern Reconstruction
The End of Reconstruction Continued… To avoid upholding the Fifteenth Amendment, many states enacted literacy tests and poll taxes Blacks were also subjected to grandfather clauses With these measures the “solid South” prevailed Nearly a century after Reconstruction, only Democrats tended to win important political offices in southern states

73 Review 1. Describe the differences between Presidential Reconstruction and Radical Reconstruction. Who backed each view and which one eventually won? 2. The purpose of the Fourteenth Amendment was to A. end slavery. B. ensure African Americans had the right to vote. C. make sure that African Americans were recognized as citizens. D. place military rule over southern states during Reconstruction.

74 Review 3. The Amendment to the Constitution that was intended to give African Americans the right to vote was the A. Thirteenth Amendment. B. Fourteenth Amendment. C. Fifteenth Amendment. D. Reconstruction Act of 1867. 4. Describe ways that southern whites tried to resist giving equal rights to blacks during and after Reconstruction.

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