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Clash of Beliefs and Ideals STANDARDS 8, 9, & 10

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1 Clash of Beliefs and Ideals STANDARDS 8, 9, & 10
Unit 5 Clash of Beliefs and Ideals STANDARDS 8, 9, & 10

2 GPS # 8 Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics by including the following: Nat Turner * preacher in Virginia born into slavery * he and 80 followers attacked four plantations and killed 60 white inhabitants * tried and hanged * whites retaliated and killed 200 blacks * Turner’s rebellion strengthened the resolve Southern whites to defend slavery and to control their slaves


4 Rise of abolitionism: Garrison—radical white abolitionist (1831), editor of Liberator Frederick Douglass—ex-slave abolitionist, lecturer, and owned his own anti-slavery newspaper entitled The North Star Grimke sisters—abolitionist whose father was a South Carolina slaveholder * Angelina Grimke published An Appeal to Christian Women of the South * raised money, distributed literature, and collected signatures for petitions to Congress

5 Harriet Tubman & the Underground Railroad
* Free African Americans and whites developed a secret network of people who aided fugitive slaves in their escape Harriet Tubman (escaped 1849) was a famous “conductor” who hid fugitives in secret places, provided food and clothing, and escorted them to the next “station” (followed the North Star) She made 19 trips and helped at least 300 slaves (including her parents) who were never captured She became a speaker for the abolitionist movement

6 Harriet Tubman

7 Harriet Beecher Stowe Abolitionist Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin Message was that slavery was not a political contest, but also a moral struggle Northern abolitionist increased protest against Fugitive Slave Act while Southerners criticized it

8 Harriet Beecher Stowe

9 Southern slaves—worked from dawn to dusk on plantations or small farms, had overseer
Northern slaves—worked in mills and on ships b/c some whites were lured by southern wealth * some developed specialized skills (blacksmithing or carpentry) * hired out to factory owners * better fed and clothed


11 1. Missouri Compromise—1820-1821
Henry Clay Temporarily solved issue of balance between slave states and free states in the West Admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state Preserved sectional balance in the Senate Louisiana Territory split Above 36*30’ free, below slave 2. Nebraska Territory lay north of the line created by the Missouri Compromise (legally free state but Stephan Douglas wanted it divided into two states to maintain balance in Senate)


13 C After War of 1812 Britain wanted to pour inexpensive goods into U.S. but Congress passed a tariff to protect industry (increased 1824 and 1828) Andrew Jackson’s vice pres., John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) called the 1828 tariff a Tariff of Abominations b/c high tariffs reduced British exports and forced South to buy expensive goods from North Calhoun said sovereign states each had the right to nullify or reject a federal law it considered unconstitutional (withdraw from Union if couldn’t) “The South Carolina Exposition”

14 Hayne (SC) vs Webster (Mass.) Great Debate
Jackson— “Union must be preserved” Calhoun— “Union can only be preserved by respecting rights of the States and distributing equally the benefit and burden of the Union” Calhoun resigned in 1832 States’ rights tested in 1832 when Congress passed tariff law that SC found unacceptable SC said 1828 and 1832 tariffs were “unauthorized by the Constitution and null, void, and no law”


16 SC threatened to secede (withdraw from Union)
Jackson declared SC’s actions treasonous and threatened Calhoun Jackson passed Force Bill in 1833 (allowed federal gov’t to use army and navy against SC if they continued to resist) Henry Clay intervened by proposing a tariff bill that would lower duties over 10 year period

17 With with Mexico Background information 1821—Mexico won its independence Mexico offered land grants to agents (empresarios) and Americans bought the cheap land * 1824—Mexico abolished slavery (unsuccessful) 1825– Stephen Austin (empresarios) established colony between Brazos and Colorado (Texas) * 1830—Mexico sealed borders and enforced heavy tax on American goods

18 Stephen Austin

19 1833—Austin traveled to Mexico City to demand self-government for Texas to Mexican president Santa Anna (Austin was imprisoned) which caused TEXAS REVOLUTION 1835—Texans attacked and drove Mexican forces from the Alamo (fort); Santa Anna responded by destroying the small garrison in Alamo (187 U.S. defenders died including Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett)

20 March 1836---Santa Anna’s troops executed 300 rebels at Goliad
April 21, 1836—Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto; “Remember the Alamo” was shouted as 630 Santa Anna’s soldiers were killed Sept. 1836—Houston president of Republic of Texas (Lone Star Republic) December 29, 1845—Texas became 28th state

21 Causes of War With Mexico
1844—Santa Anna was ousted Late 1845—James Polk (pres. of U.S.) sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico and he was rejected; Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to march to the Rio Grande and blockade river (expansion and slavery will become major issues) John Fremont led an exploration through Mexico’s Alta California province (violation of Mexico’ territorial rights

22 Near Matamoros, Mexican soldiers killed 9 U.S. soldiers
Polk sent war message to Congress b/c he claimed Mexicans shed “American blood upon American soil” War With Mexico ( ) 1846—Polk ordered Colonel Stephen Kearny to march from Ft. Leavenworth Kansas, across the Santa Fe, NM (met by upper-class Mexicans who wanted to join U.S and won without shot being fired) June 1846—American settlers led by Fremont seized Sonoma declared independence from Mexico and proclaimed the nation the Republic of California

23 Kearny arrived from New Mexico and joined forces with Fremont and Mexican troops gave up
Polk made secret agreement with Santa Anna to end war but in Feb Santa Anna did the opposite and ordered an attack on Taylor’s forces at Buena Vista (Mexico lost) March 1847—General Winfield Scott captured Veracruz Sept. 14, 1847—Scott’s troops captured Mexico City


25 Effects of the War With Mexico
Enlarged U.S. territory by approximately one third Feb. 2, 1848—U.S. and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo a. Rio Grande border of Texas b. Ceded New Mexico and California to U.S. c. U.S. agreed to pay 15 million dollars for the Mexican cession (California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming) d. Guaranteed Mexicans living in territories * Gold Rush in 1849

26 Gold Rush of 1849 Gold Rush—movement of many people to a region in which gold has been discovered

27 1853– President Franklin Pierce authorized James Gadsden to pay Mexico an additional $10 million for another piece of territory (Gadsden Territory which helped establish borders of the 48 states)

28 Wilmot Proviso— proposed August 8, 1846
heightened tensions between North and South An amendment to a military appropriations bill that prohibited slavery in any territory the U.S. acquired as a result of the war with Mexico Divided Congress (Northerners supported it Southerners didn’t)

29 Compromise of 1850 California grew so fast it skipped territorial phase of becoming a state b/c of Gold Rush Late 1850—it held constitutional convention, adopted a state constitution, elected a governor and legislature, and applied to join Union California’s new constitution forbade slavery Southerners were alarmed b/c it lay south of line of 36*30’ (Missouri Compromise) Zachary Taylor who succeed Polk as pres. In 1849 supported Cali. Admission as a free state South questioned whether it should remain in Union

30 When Congress opened in Dec
When Congress opened in Dec California was a big issue along with Northerners wanting to abolish slavery in Washington D.C. Henry Clay worked on Compromise of 1850 (page 308) but the Senate rejected it in July Stephen A. Douglas unbundled the package and made them vote on each provision one at a time (eventually voted into law)

31 GPS # 9 The students will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, courses, and consequences of the Civil War.

32 1. Kansas-Nebraska Act: Proposed by Stephen Douglas 1854 Divide area into two territories (Nebraska in north and Kansas in south) Douglas needed Southerners to construct railroad between Chicago (his hometown) and San Francisco—wanted to organize western territory and make it a part of Union Repealed Missouri Compromise Established popular sovereignty for both territories (right of residents to vote on slavery for themselves)


34 2. Explain the failure of popular sovereignty:
After Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed settlers from North and South poured into Kansas March 1855 Kansas had enough settlers to hold an election for territory legislature (“border ruffians” from slave state of Missouri voted illegally) Proslavery candidates won, set up gov. at Lecompton, and issued proslavery acts “Sack of Lawrence” (Lawrence –antislavery settlers) read page 316 “The Pottawatomie Massacre” (led by John Brown) read page 316 Kansas became known as Bleeding Kansas

35 Preston Brooks Attacking Charles Sumner in U.S. Senate Chamber 1856

36 Dred Scott

37 a. 3 Explain the Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott—slave from Missouri Owner took him north of Missouri Compromise line in 1834 and lived in free territory for four years Returned to Missouri where owner died Scott sued to gain his freedom b/c lived in free territory for 4 years 1857 Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that slaves did not have rights of citizens Court ruled Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (Congress couldn’t forbid slavery in any part of territories) Southerners cheered b/c protected their 5th Amendment rights to own property Supreme Court cleared way to extend slavery

38 4. Explain John Brown’s Raid:
Oct. 16, 1859 Led 21 men (black and white) into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (West Virginia) Wanted to seize federal arsenal Held hostages but slaves didn’t join in b/c weren’t informed Captured by Robert E. Lee Hanged Dec Northerners saw him as a martyr but Southerners terrified

39 Abraham Lincoln Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in: 1. Second inaugural addresses: attached 2. Gettysburg Address: attached

40 * Lincoln dealt with disloyalty by suspended (in Maryland and later in war) the writ of habeas corpus (court order that requires authorities to bring a person held in jail before the court to determine why he or she is being jailed) * Jailed 13,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers in the Union (Copperheads were jailed—Northern Democrats who wanted peace with South) * seized telegraph offices to make sure no one used the wires for subversion * Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney declared these actions unconstitutional but Lincoln ignored the ruling SET A PRECEDENT IN U.S. HISTORY!!! SOME PRESIDENTS HAVE CITED WAR OR “NATIONAL SECURITY” AS A REASON TO EXPAND THE POWERS OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOV’T.

41 Important People of Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant Successful commander of Union military (later 18th pres.) captured Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson and won at Battle of Shiloh in Miss. 1862 Hero of Battle at Vicksburg Believed in total war

42 Important People of Civil War
Robert E. Lee Commander of Confederate army Opposed secession but fought for Virginia (Seven Days’ Battles) Fought at Antietam against McClellan

43 Important People of Civil War
“Stonewall Jackson” Confederate general Victorious at Bull Run (first victory for South)

44 Important People of Civil War
William T. Sherman Appointed by U. Grant as commander of military division of Miss. Believed in total war Responsible for raiding Georgia while Grant took Virginia Sherman’s March (p. 364) 1864

45 Important People of Civil War
Jefferson Davis Former senator of Miss. Feb. 9, 1861 elected President of Confederacy Ordered war at Ft. Sumter (peaceful succession into war)

46 Important Battles Fort Sumter—1861, South Carolina
After seven southern states seceded Confederates soldiers began taking federal installations (courthouses, post offices and forts) Most important one was Ft. Sumter (island in Charleston harbor) April 12th Jefferson Davis declared war & Ft. Sumter fell and North surrendered

47 Ft. Sumter

48 Antietam Bloodiest single day battle in American history (more than 26,000 casualties) Sept Instead of pursuing battered Confederate army (maybe ending war) McClellan did nothing South retreated across the Potomac into Virginia Nov. 7, 1862 Lincoln fired McClellan

49 Antietam

50 Vicksburg North wins (Grant) 1863
One of two Confederate holdouts preventing Union from taking complete control of Miss. River (waterway)

51 Gettysburg Most decisive battle of the war Pennsylvania July 1863
North won Famous Gettysburg address given

52 Battle of Atlanta Sherman takes Atlanta Sept. 1864 North won

53 Surrender at Appomattox
April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders Virginia village at Appomattox Courthouse Terms were generous Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them home (3 day rations) Officers were permitted to keep side arms

54 African American Soldiers

55 African American Soldiers
1862 Congress passed law allowing them to serve in military Large scale enlistment occurred after Emancipation Proclamation 10% of Union army was African American Served in separate regiments commanded by white officers Could not rise above the rank of captain (except for Alexander T. Augustana Lt. Colonel) Received $10 a month/whites $16.50

56 African American Soldiers
Congress equalized pay in 1864 Mortality rate higher than that for white soldiers (garrisons duty and Confederate soldiers executed them instead of treating them like prisoners of war) 54th Massachusetts Infantry (pg 352)

57 Women During Civil War Clara Barton
Dorthea Dix --nation’s first superintendent of women nurses Clara Barton cared for sick and wounded at front lines (Union) “angel of battlefield” at Antietam 1864 appointed Sup. Of Nurses for Army 1865—Lincoln appointed her head of search for missing men Organized American Red Cross in 1881

58 Income Tax Congress decided to help pay for the war by tapping citizen’s wealth In 1863 Congress enacted the nation’s first income tax (a tax that takes a specified percentage of an individuals income)

59 Reconstruction (GPS 10) Time period which the U.S. began to rebuild after the Civil War Process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states

60 a. Presidential Reconstruction vs. Radical Republic Reconstruction
Lincoln favored lenient policy and make South’s return to Union as quick as possible Ten-Percent Plan (Dec. 1863)—pardon all Confederates (exceptions) and after 10% took oath a Confederate state could form new state gov. and gain reps. in Congress RRR Minority of Republicans in Congress known as Radical Republicans Led by Senator Sumner and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens Wanted to destroy political power of former slaveholders Wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship and right to vote

61 Presidential Reconstruction vs. Radical Republic Reconstruction
Lincoln used pocket veto to kill Wade-Davis Bill (p. 377) After Lincoln’s assassination Andrew Johnson became pres. (Democrat) had a plan called Presidential Reconstruction which called for the following: RRR Responded to 10 % Percent Plan with Wade-Davis Bill (Congress responsible for Reconstruction and majority needed instead of just 10%)

62 Andrew Johnson

63 Presidential Reconstruction vs. Radical Republic Reconstruction
Remaining Confederate states would have to withdraw its secession Swear allegiance to Union Annul Confederate war debts Ratify 13th Amendment (abolish slavery) Southerners relieved b/c he didn’t support suffrage for African Americans Pardoned ex Confederates RRR Upset with Johnson’s plan b/c it (like Lincoln’s plan) failed to address needs of former slaves (land, voting rights, and protection)

64 Johnson’s Impeachment
Johnson tried to fire Sec. of War Edwin Stanton b/c he was closely tied to Radical Republicans This violated the Tenure in Office Act (limit the president’s power to hire and fire gov’t officials Thaddeus Stevens led Congress in voting to impeach (charge with wrongdoing in order to remove from office) May 16, 1868, the Senate voted to spare Johnson’s presidency by one vote.

65 b. Ex-Slaves after Civil War
Distribution of land: General Sherman (Jan. 1865) promised freed slaves 40 acres and a mule, per family, if they followed his army For several months they farmed their plots in coastal Georgia and South Carolina Aug Pres. Johnson ordered original landowners be allowed to reclaim land and evict former slaves 1866 Homestead Act set aside 44 million acres in swampy unsuitable areas for ex-slaves few had seeds, tolls, plows, and horses to farm

66 b. Ex-Slaves after Civil War
Education African Americans established educational institutions (helped by churches and Freedman’s Bureau) Hampton University was founded during Reconstruction By 1869 black teachers outnumbered white teachers By 1870 $1 million dollars spent on education by African Americans By 1877 more than 600,000 African Americans were enrolled in elementary school Some white Southerners responded violently

67 Education during Reconstruction

68 Morehouse University Morehouse Legacy
In 1867, two years after the Civil War ended, Augusta Institute was established in the basement of Springfield Baptist Church in Augusta, Ga.  Founded in 1787, Springfield Baptist is the oldest independent African American church in the United States. The school’s primary purpose was to prepare black men for the ministry and teaching. Today, Augusta Institute is Morehouse College,

69 Howard University The University charter as enacted by Congress and subsequently approved by President Andrew Johnson on March 2, 1867, designated Howard University as “a University for the education of youth in the liberal arts and sciences.” The Freedmen’s Bureau provided most of the early financial support of the University. The

70 Ex-Slaves after Civil War
Freedman’s Bureau Established by Congress in 1865 Congress voted to continue and enlarge it Feb. 1866 First federal relief agency in U.S. History Assisted former slaves and poor whites in South Distributed clothes and food Set up at least 40 hospitals Set up 4,000 schools Set up 61 industrial institutes Set up 74 teacher-training centers Ended in 1869 b/c of lack of support

71 Ex-slaves Many turned to sharecropping—family farmed a portion of a white landowner’s land in return for housing and share of crop (some landowners were dishonest) Tenant farming—tenant farmers paid rent to farm the land and owned the crops they grew

72 Civil War Amendments Significance of 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments:
All direct results of the aftermath of the Civil War 13th prohibited slavery 14th Amendment granted citizenship to freed blacks and ensured that they would not be deprived of due process 15th Amendment prohibited states from denying freed male blacks the right to vote.

73 Political offices held by blacks after the Civil War:
Posts in legislatures and at local levels Elected to U.S. Senate (Hiram Revels) Governor of Louisiana (Pinckney Pinchback)

74 Hiram Revels and Pinckney Pinchback

75 Black Codes Some southerners who led Confederacy held on to positions and enacted black codes which are laws that limited the rights of freed blacks so they still lived like slaves: curfew, if convicted of vagrancy could be whipped or sold into forced labor, had to work for at least a year for whites restricted to rural areas Eventually the Radical Republicans will pass the Reconstruction Act and the black codes passed under Presidential Reconstruction lost most of its power

76 KKK

77 The South Some refused to give African American equal rights (in spite of the 13th-15th Amendments) and used violence –Ku Klux Klan (used intimidation) End of Reconstruction (Compromise of 1877) 1877 when Democrats finally agreed to give presidency to Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, in exchange for Washington loosening grip on southern states Blacks lost political positions and rights after this Jim Crow laws—segregation Literacy test & poll tax—required citizens to pass or pay before voting Grandfather clauses—made sure not to hinder liberate or poor whites by exempting them if they or their ancestors voted in previous elections or served in Confederate military

78 End of Reconstruction Scalawag – white southerners who joined the Republican party after the Civil War. Hoped to gain political power to help African-Americans vote Thought that a Republican government offered the best chances for the South to rebuild and industrialize. Most were small farmers who wanted to improve their economic and political position to prevent former wealthy planters from regaining power. Carpetbaggers A name for Northerners who moved to the South after the war Name referred to the belief that Northerners arrived with so few belongings that everything could fit in a carpet bag or a small piece of luggage made of carpeting. Southerners believed they wanted to exploit the South’s postwar turmoil *** both terms were negative labels imposed by political enemies

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