Union Victories By the end of 1863, the Union had won several important battles in the Civil War (Vicksburg and Gettysburg). The South would not give up so the North knew that if they were going to win, they would have to destroy the Souths ability to fight.
Ulysses S. Grant President Lincoln needed a tough army general to defeat the South, so he chose Ulysses S. Grant. Grants plan was to lead an army into Virginia to defeat General Robert E. Lees army and capture Richmond.
General William Tecumseh Sherman Grant order General Sherman to lead the Union army in Tennessee and to attack Atlanta, Georgia, a major Confederate city.
The Atlanta Campaign Attack began on Atlanta in May 1864. (City was a center for major supplies, factories, and railroads.) The Confederates fought all summer and used mountains and rivers as defenses. Sherman captured Atlanta in September. (Telegraph was sent to President Lincoln that said, Atlanta is ours, and fairly won.)
Shermans March to Sea From Atlanta, Shermans soldiers marched to Savannah (March to Sea).Along the way, Sherman destroyed anything southerners needed for the war. This was known as total war. After reaching Savannah, Shermans army turned north, once again ruining everything in its path.
Grant and Lee While Sherman marched into Georgia in 1864, Grant led a huge army toward Richmond, Virginia. He was opposed by Robert E. Lees army. The Union suffered terrible losses, but Grant kept attacking. Lee was forced farther and farther south. 1864, the armies faced each other near Richmond for almost a year. Neither side could defeat each other.
Lees Surrender The Unions resources helped Grant (More supplies and soldiers). Lees army was struggling (No supplies or new soldiers). Some Confederate soldiers started to desert. By early April 1865, the Union army captured Richmond.
Appomattox Court House Near a town called Appomattox Court House, Lee made a hard decision. He had to surrender. On April 9, 1865, Grant and Lee met in a home in the village of Appomattox Court House. Grant let the Confederate soldiers go home and sent 25,000 meals to them.
War is Over When the Confederate soldiers passed the Union army on their way home, the Union soldiers saluted their old enemies. News of Lees surrender spread quickly. People celebrated in the streets. Fighting continued in a few places, but by late June all was quiet. The war was over!