5 “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer” Matthews Effect:“the rich get richer and the poor get poorer”Average ReaderPoor Reader
6 Minutes of Reading Per Day Variation in Amount of Independent ReadingMinutes of Reading Per Day0.020.18,000100.721,000201.3106,000303.2200,000404.6282,000506.5432,000609.6622,0007014.21,146,0008021.11,823,0009065.14,358,00098Words Read Per YearPercentileSource: adapted from Anderson, Watson, and Fielding, 1998
7 Rank of “Rare” Words in Spoken & Written Language Source: adapted from Anderson, Watson, and Fielding, 1998Communication MediumChildren’s Books62730.9Comic Books86753.5Adult Books105852.7Popular Magazines139965.7Newspapers169068.3Scientific Articles4389128.0Mr.Rogers/Sesame4132.0Prime Time TV49022.7Cartoon Shows59830.8Expert Witness100828.4College Graduate49617.3Rank of Median WordRare Words per 1000Frequency Ranking of 86,741word forms where the word “the” ranks #1 in usage, “pass” ranks #1,000, “vibrate” ranks #5,000, “shrimp” ranks #9,000, and “amplifier” ranks #16,000.
8 Vocabulary Facts“If most vocabulary is acquired outside of formal teaching, then the only opportunities to acquire new words occur when an individual is exposed to a word in written or oral language that is outside his current vocabulary. This will happen vastly more often while reading than while talking or watching television.”Source: Cunningham and Stanovich. “What Reading Does for the Mind,” American Educator, (Spring/Summer, 1998) .
9 Vocabulary Facts 1982 – 2002 Age Groups 17.0%14.4%13.1%1982 – 2002Age GroupsSource: Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, 2002
10 Primacy-recency effect Brain-based TeachingPrimacy-recency effectPrime-time-1Prime-time-2Degree of retentionPractice & ReviewNew ContentDown-timeSense & Relevance10203040Time in minutes
11 Predicting ABC’s Predicting Vocabulary Before ReadingTOPIC:A-BC-DE-FG-HI-JK-LM-NO-PQ-RS-TU-VWXYZ
12 Vocabulary Development What Works Extensive ReadingDirect Instruction in Word MeaningDirect Instruction in MorphologyDirect Instruction in Context UsageDiverse, interesting, fun activities
15 Preview Maps Previewing Texts Before ReadingWhat it looks like: The Americans, The Divisive Politics of SlaveryWhat is the title?What is this list?Whose American story is told?What is in the purple block of text?Whose picture is shown?Rewrite first major heading as a question?Rewrite the first subheading as a question?
16 Primacy-recency effect Brain-based TeachingPrimacy-recency effectPrime-time-1Prime-time-2Degree of retentionPractice & ReviewNew ContentDown-timeSense & Relevance10203040Time in minutes
18 P.L.A.N. US Map p. 256 picture Four Years w/ V. Pres. The Living Constitution – Article 2. The ExecutiveUS Map p. 256 pictureFour Years w/ V. Pres.!XEquals # of Senators and RepsTerms of OfficeElectoral College?The Executive, p. 256Election Day?SalaryQualifications+Natural-born citizen – p. 257?!Oath of OfficeSuccessionAffirmation p. 257Legend: X = familiar / ? = unfamiliar / ! = surprising / + = important
20 What Did I Read? Guided Reading During ReadingWhat Did I Read? Guided ReadingWhat it looks like:Teacher says: “Class, remember that the Middle Ages were filled with war and disease. Now we are going to see a big change in Europe. Follow along as I read and take notes.”Teacher Reads Aloud: The years 1300 to 1600 saw an explosion of creativity in Europe. Historians call this period the Renaissance. The term means rebirth—in this case a rebirth of art and learning. The Renaissance began in northern Italy around 1300 and later spread north. One reason northern Europe lagged behind is that France and England were at war.Teachers says: “What did I read? Everyone take two minutes to make some notes about what I just read.”Teacher says: [after two minutes] “Steven, what did I read?”Steven says: “Renaissance means rebirth. A rebirth or art and learning.”Teacher says: “Good. Maria, What did I read?”Maria says: “It started in Italy and spread north. The north had been having a war.”Teacher says: “Good. Kim, what did I read?Kim says: “The war was between France and England.”Teacher says: “Good. Kevin, what did I read?Kevin says: “The Renaissance lasted between 1300 and 1600.”Teacher says: “Good. Anyone have anything else? (No answer) Then let’s go to the next section.”
21 Legend: X = familiar / ? = unfamiliar / ! = surprising / + = important P.L.A.N. + What Did I Read?The Road to Lexington and ConcordLegend: X = familiar / ? = unfamiliar / ! = surprising / + = important
23 Compare/Contrast “Y” Notes Summarizing Differences and Similarities During ReadingCompare/Contrast “Y” Notes Summarizing Differences and SimilaritiesWhat it looks like:Topic:______________Topic:______________Similarities:
24 Compare/Contrast “Y” Notes Summarizing Differences and Similarities During ReadingCompare/Contrast “Y” Notes Summarizing Differences and SimilaritiesWhat it looks like: Topic: The Lincoln-Douglas DebatesTopic:______________S. DouglasTopic:______________A. LincolnRan for US Senate in 1858Against popular sovereigntyAgainst slaveryDistorted Douglas’s viewsDramatic speakerFormer WhigFor Popular SovereigntyPlain and direct languageDistorted Lincoln’s viewsAgainst slaveryIncumbent SenatorRan for US Senate in 1858Similarities:Ran for US Senate in 1858Against slaveryDistorted Lincoln’s viewsDistorted Douglas’s views
25 Words to Remember The systems you have in place are perfect for the results you are getting.
26 Contact InformationBill McBride432 Vicksburg St.San Francisco, CA 94114Phone/Fax:Workshop Info:
27 Teacher Price-$6.36 Half the proceeds go to charity. To order callFor Workshops or Keynotes SpeechesGo to: