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A Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

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1 A Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button Select “Meeting Minder” Select the “Action Items” tab Type in action items as they come up Click OK to dismiss this box This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered. Prioritizing and Mapping the Curriculum with the Learning-Focused Toolbox A Process for Developing Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum LEARNING-FOCUSED SOLUTIONS

2 Curriculum What is it? What is it like?
A path or course to run in small steps. Any document or plan that defines: the work of teachers the content to be learned by the students the methods to be used in the process. What is the Purpose? To focus and connect the work of classroom teachers in school to the standards, assessments and classroom practices in order to raise student achievement. Curriculum What isn’t it? This ‘Word Map’ explains what curriculum should be, as well as what it isn’t. Teachers need to know how we are defining curriculum before we approach the need for and the process of prioritizing the benchmarks & GLEs identified in the state’s standards. Curriculum is NOT the textbook or program you purchased from a publisher. Curriculum can no longer be what you’ve been doing for the past 15 years unless it is demonstrated to be in line with the standards and assessments!

3 Why ‘Prioritize’ the Curriculum?
Every state’s curriculum has far too many standards to be learned in the time available In the past, teachers have had to independently prioritize their curriculum - which has provided an uneven “taught” curriculum that results in inconsistent achievement. Make it clear to the teachers that it was an unreasonable expectation to expect that teachers prioritize the standards on their own without assistance. There should be no sense of ‘blame’.

4 Why Prioritize the Curriculum?
The prioritizing curriculum process provides the means to deal with this abundance of standards and limited time. Prioritizing the curriculum does not eliminate curriculum, but rather ‘codes the curriculum’. All teachers that teach a common grade or course, now will emphasize the same learning & understanding rather than emphasizing “coverage”! How teachers manage and plan the curriculum significantly impacts achievement. Fenwick English (1992) found that school districts that more fully concentrated time and resources on what he called ‘essential elements of the curriculum’ had much higher achievement.

5 Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
“The single most important initiative a school or district can engage in to raise student achievement.” As referenced by Bob Marzano in his book: What Works In Schools The prioritizing and mapping process that we did is the critical first step in attaining that goal. The development and use of a prioritized curriculum provides schools and educators with the ability to focus instruction that has the greatest impact on student learning and achievement.

6 Guaranteed Curriculum
EVERY STUDENT is provided the opportunity to learn a core curriculum which provides them with the probability of success in school. These next slides explain what Marzano means when he talks about the tremendous need for “guaranteed and viable curriculum”.

7 Viable Curriculum Schools make sure that the necessary time is available and protected so students will be able to learn the guaranteed curriculum.

8 Quality Curriculum: Provides teachers with a guide for what students need to learn in order to be successful. Prevents redundancies in instruction. Guards against gaps in student learning. We do not have the luxury to repeat what has already been taught & learned. There is too much content to be learned and understood. We also can not afford to create gaps that cause our students to experience failure and fall behind their peers. Quality curriculum guides us as we focus on student success.

9 Quality Curriculum Provides a sequence of what needs to be learned across individual grade levels or courses as well as a vertical sequence from grade level to grade level or from course to course. Provides teachers with a correlation to the standards and assessments in an attempt to assure students are as well prepared as possible. Explain how one of the most powerful events of the prioritizing process occurred when teachers met in vertical teams (the grade before & after) to preview the prioritized benchmarks & GLEs to assure that they had eliminated gaps and redundancies.

10 Organization -- Multiple Options for Acceleration -- Vertical AND Grade Level Teams -- Large Blocks of Time -- Literacy & Math Blocks Exemplary Practices in High Achievement, High Accountability Districts and Schools Assessment -- Focus = Assessment for Learning -- Continuous Formative Assessment -- Benchmark Assessments That Direct Instruction -- Continuous Use of Rubrics Instruction -- K- 12 Reading Comprehension -- K- 12 Writing in Content -- Advance Organizers, Scaffolding, Preview -- Differentiated Cognitive Strategies -- Schools With Instructional Coaches Background: In 1996, the Pew Foundation and the US Dept. of Education created the Education Evaluation Consortium. Groups evaluated 1400 schools per year (700 Typical & 700 Exemplary Schools) and analyzed the data to determine the practices of exemplary schools. The above are the exemplary practices they noted. 90/90 Schools = 90% of Students on or Above Grade Level & 90% of Students on Free/Reduced Meals (School Highly Impacted by Poverty) 90/90/90 Schools = 90% on or Above Grade Level, 90% of Students on Free/Reduced Meals, 90% Students Are Minority Planning -- Priority, Time Allocated -- Data & Results Driven -- Team-Based Planning & Individual -- Linked to Staff Development Curriculum -- Prioritized Curriculum -- K-12 Benchmarks/Maps -- Unit Content Maps With Vocabulary Focus

11 Best Curriculum The highest quality curriculum is developed by utilizing a wide range of resources during the development and subsequent monitoring of the curriculum. Standards Benchmarks Performance objectives / GLEs Assessments Teacher experience The highest quality curriculum involves a range of resources that are used to determine what is essential and important for all students to know, understand and do at each grade level and in each course. Teachers work in teams and rely on their experiences with what students need to know to be successful on the state’s assessments. Is this teaching to the test? Not conclusively, but the focus is on making sure students are provided with the knowledge and skills to be successful on those assessments. This eliminates mystery learning! We owe it to our students to prepare them!

12 Prioritizing Not all content is equal!
Standards contain a range of performance objectives (benchmarks & GLEs). Some performance objectives are more important than others in helping students succeed! We need to determine where we need to place an emphasis because we don’t have enough time to teach all the benchmarks or GLEs with the same intensity!

13 How did we do it? STEP 1 Teachers prioritized the benchmarks & GLEs into Essential, Important and Compact categories Essential vs Important vs. Compact Essential = 50% of the Content & requires 70% of the Instructional Time Important = 30% of the Content & requires 25% of the Instructional Time Compact = 20% of the Content & requires 5% of the Instructional Time

14 Differences Essential refers to the “Big Ideas” or concepts that you want your students to understand at a greater depth. Important refers to the key knowledge and skills that lead to student understanding of the essential knowledge. Compact: refers to the less important stuff that students can usually get by without or will be acquired as a result of other instruction.

15 Prioritizing in Toolbox

16 Vertical Teaming After grade level teams and course teams prioritized their GLEs or benchmarks, they met in vertical teams Here they reviewed & discussed their rationale for how they prioritized each GLE or benchmark They looked for redundancies and gaps before returning to their teams to make revisions

17 STEP 2: Teachers clustered those benchmarks & GLEs in the three categories into topics that will be used to guide your instruction. Then they identified the concepts that are contained in each topic For every topic, they created a Content Map including all the necessary elements

18 Mapping in Toolbox Creating Content Map in Toolbox
Printed or published version of the Content Map

19 Key Learning (Enduring Understanding): Instructional Tools:
Topic: Course: Key Learning (Enduring Understanding): Instructional Tools: Assessment(s): Unit Essential Question(s): Concept: Concept: Concept: Lesson Essential Questions (LEQs): Lesson Essential Questions (LEQs): Lesson Essential Questions (LEQs): Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Vocabulary:

20 Content Map Components
KEY LEARNING: A full statement of what is essential for students to know and do, representing significant concepts key to understanding the content. ESSENTIAL QUESTION(S): Written as a thought provoking and engaging question about the content that provides a view of the ‘Big Picture’ and acts as the ‘Mental Velcro’ for students to make connections. Concepts: The ‘heart’ of the unit’s content. Concepts: ‘Big Ideas’ that connect the skills or knowledge to the overarching topic. Concepts: Nouns in the ‘Performance Objectives’ of each state’s standards. Lesson Essential Questions: Concept specific but link to & support unit EQ(s). Lesson Essential Questions: Frame the study of the topic & guide the learning. HOTS Lesson Essential Questions: Used to activate & summarize key ideas. Explain what a useful tool a Lesson Essential Question can be. It can be utilized at the beginning of the lesson to activate thinking. Students work in collaborative pairs and try to predict an answer to the question. At the end of the lesson, the question is answered by students to demonstrate their knowledge. The Lesson Essential Question may take several days of instruction, modeling, guided practice and independent practice before students can respond successfully to the question. Vocabulary: Words that are critical and essential to understanding the content being taught. Vocabulary: Multiple meaning words & words that are easily misunderstood. Vocabulary: Words related to “Big Idea” concepts and skills being taught.

21 Concept: Character Analysis Concept: Literary Analysis
English Literature: 11th Grade Instructional Tools: Plays: Hamlet, Julius Caesar, Macbeth Concepts of Shakespearean characterization, drama, & tragedies Compare / Contrast Essay Persuasive Essay Key Learnings: To define and understand the elements and characteristics of Shakespearean tragedy. Explore the tragic heroes in the Shakespearean tragedies and identify the flaws, events, and influences that led to the tragedy of each hero. Unit Essential Questions: Why a tragedy? What are the characteristics of a Shakespearean tragedy? Concept: Character Analysis Concept: Literary Analysis Concept: Drama Characteristics LEQ(s): 1. Why do we call them tragic heroes? 2. What are the common characteristics of William Shakespeare’s tragic heroes? LEQ(s): 1. What are the literary elements of a Shakespearean play? 2. How do these elements work together to develop a tragedy? LEQ(s): 1. How do Shakespearean drama characteristics enhance the portrayal of the tragic hero? Vocabulary: Setting Characterization Theme Plot/Conflict Imagery Dramatic Irony Vocabulary: Monologue Soliloquy Aside Foil Catastrophe Staging Vocabulary: Protagonist Intellectual Virtuous Avenging Flawed Antagonist

22 8th Grade Social Studies: The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Instructional Tools: Key Learning(s): Exploration is motivated by political, economic, scientific, & social factors. Individuals and their values impact history. Patterns in one historical event can be found in other historical events. Students will be able to: Primary Sources Time Line Persuasive Writing Graphic Persuasive Writing Rubric Word Splash Unit Essential Question(s): The Lewis and Clark Expedition: What’s the big deal? The Corps of Discovery Motivation Significance Processes Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Constructing Support Abstracting Why did you send them, Thomas Jefferson? How can you support Jefferson’s decision? Who were they and why were they chosen? What were the contributions of the expedition? How can we find patterns in historical events? How is the Lewis and Clark Expedition like other events in history? Recall the content map is first step in creating a learning unit. It is the big picture of the unit – a picture of the content (concept and skills) that students are learning in this unit. Use the slide to point out the parts of the content map. Key Learning is major idea/concept you want students to learn. The broad understandings that a teacher wants students to carry with them over time. Unit essential question is a broad question that captures the Key Learning desired for the unit. The major concepts are based on the curriculum objectives. Lesson Essential questions (Acquisition Lessons) are created for each Major Concept. Key terms and phrases are listed for each LEQ. Talk about the use of the Content Map during the Launch of the unit. Point out the optional spot where teaches may place examples, steps, formulas if these are needed to complete the key learning in the unit. Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Expedition Louisiana Purchase Northwest Passage economic political corps adventurous leadership teamwork perseverance Vocabulary: accomplishment impact significance

23 How do we use multiplication? Real-Life Application Meaning Process
Sample Content Map 3rd Grade Math: Multiplication Instructional Tools: Graph Paper Multiplication Charts Calculator Real Life Problems (finding area) Sequence Chart of Steps Key Learning: Multiplication is a more efficient way of adding. Essential Question: How do we use multiplication? Real-Life Application Meaning Process LEQ(s): 1. How can arrays help you understand multiplication? 2. How is multiplication repeated addition? 3. How can you use skip counting to find a product? LEQ(s): 1. How do you multiply factors to get a product? 2. What patterns can help you remember the multiplication facts? 3. How can we find errors in multiplying? LEQ(s): 1. Where is multiplication used in real-life? Vocabulary: arrays repeated product digit value Vocabulary: factors product reversing lattice method patterns errors Vocabulary: large lots budgeting finding area shopping Industry

24 Writing Process (1st. Grade)
Instructional Tools: Story Element Graphic Organizer Daily Journal Entries Word Maps & Categorized Word Walls Writing Samples Writing Process Check List Sequence Maps/Story Boards Key Learning: Good writing enables us to “talk to” people. Essential Question: How can I become a good writer? Writing Process Simple Story Writing Genres LEQ(s): (1) Where do ideas for writing come from? (2) How can a ‘writing map’ help me plan before I write? (3) How do I make sure what I write says what I mean/? LEQ(s): What would a good story look like? (2) What would happen if my story didn’t have a beginning or was missing an ending? LEQ(s): (1) How does the purpose affect the way I write? Vocabulary: editing writing process fix-up sloppy copy story map publishing CUPS Vocabulary: poems journal writing lists information rhyming entertain story question/answer Vocabulary: sentences characters illustration captions ending first beginning middle end finally setting story elements problem

25 CONTENT MAPS: Why are they so important?
Communication device Conceptualize a unit Enable consistent curriculum pacing and planning Be sure to stress the importance of the content maps: Communication devices - use with students, parents and support teachers. Just think how parents will feel to know in advance what their students will be learning and how they can support this learning. Special needs teachers will know in advance what concepts & vocabulary they need to stress with students before classroom instruction. Conceptualize - keeps us focused on what needs to be taught and allows us to prepare teaching strategies in advance. Pacing & planning - assures that all the prioritized content is taught and learned. Highlights Vocabulary - we can raise student achievement 33% points by focusing on vocabulary instruction on key vocabulary When we use these maps with our students it eliminates ‘mystery learning’. Expectations are clear! Highlight important vocabulary Enable students to "see" the knowledge gained over time and their learning

26 Step 3: Course Map Teachers estimated how much time should be spent on each topic and arranged them sequentially on a course map The goal of the course map is to assure that all the content is taught Revisions are expected to be made to the content maps and to the course maps as teachers experience them. Remind teachers that this is a work in progress! Their feedback, as they use the maps to guide their instruction, will be incorporated during the revision period. It is not a ‘lock step’ expectation of what is taught when. The really important piece of this map is how time might be distributed to assure that ALL the content is taught.

27 Pacing and Prioritizing Time
Clicking on the Topic in the timeline opens the Content Map for the unit.

28 Step 4: A Work In Progress
Revise the priorities and edit the Content Maps as needed – based on current assessment data and experience.

29 Benefits for Teachers…
The instructional “WHAT” has been shared, making it quick and easy to develop plans Many instructional factors have been decided and developed for teachers, making their planning time much more efficient Lessons are directly connected to the school/district prioritized curriculum Planning and sharing with peers is easier and more efficient

30 Benefits for Students…
Mobility has much less impact on achievement Instruction is directly connected to what is tested Consistency of strategies and formats raises their performance

31 How do you use your ‘Content Maps’?
The ‘Content Maps’ are not meant to create more work for teachers but to act as guides as they plan instruction! In grade level/course teams, preview the maps and discuss what content you are already addressing in your instructional program At this point, you can assess what needs to be add or delete from your current program to assure student success

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