ProNouns Pronoun – a word that is used in place of one or more nouns Person: he, she, him, her, they, we, them Places, things, ideas: it, them Antecedent – the word or group of words that the pronoun stands for Ex: –James ate the juicy peach. He thought it tasted sweet and delicious. –Jack and Jill climbed up the hill. They went to fetch a pail of water.
Personal Pronouns Refers to: SingularPlural First Person The one speaking I, me, my, minewe, us, our, ours Second Person The one spoken to you, your, yours Third Person The one spoken about he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its they, them their, theirs
Possessive Pronouns Personal pronouns that are used to show ownership or possession: Ex: –Nina stored her suitcase under her bed. –Is that paper yours or mine?
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Reflexive: Refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. Intensive: Refers to the antecedent and is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence
Reflexive & Intensive Pronouns First person: myself, ourselves Second person: yourself, yourselves Third person: himself, herself, itself, themselves Reflexive: –They chose new books for themselves. –She gave herself the day off from practicing. Intensive: –David himself bought a sandwich. –The award will be presented by the principal herself.
Practice Identifying Types of Pronouns… Is it personal, reflexive, or intensive? Did Teri offer them directions to the community center? –personal Kara treated herself to a short nap after a long day. –reflexive Tracy and Ed carried the books to the car themselves. –intensive
Practice continued… Is it personal, reflexive, or intensive Darren himself did not know where the gifts were hidden. –intensive The dog made itself dizzy by chasing its own tail. –reflexive Although it fell from the top branches of the elm tree, the chipmunk was not injured. –personal
Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronoun – points out a specific person, place, thing, or idea Ex: –What is that? –This is the uniform once worn by General Sam. –These are the shoes he used to wear. –Are those really his autographs? * Note: this, that, these, and those can also be used as adjectives
Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite Pronoun – refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that may or may not be specifically named Ex: Alleachmoreone Anyeithermuchother Anybodyeverybodyneitherseveral Anyoneeveryonenobodysome Anythingfewnonesomebody Bothmanyno onesomething Ex: –Everyone in the class was invited to the party. –None of the boys knew much about camping.
Practice Identifying Types of Pronouns… Is it indefinite or demonstrative? Are you asking anyone to the dance this weekend? indefinite This is my jacket; that one must be yours. demonstrative Are those the socks you are wearing? demonstrative Nobody knows the answer to that. indefinite The armadillo paused at the puddle and drank some of the water. indefinite
Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative Pronoun – introduces a question Ex: –whatwhich who whom whose Ex: –What is the first event of the contest? –Who is going to represent our team? –To whom is the e-mail addressed? –Which is the car in the driveway? –Whose is the car in the driveway?
Relative Pronouns Relative Pronoun – introduces an adjective clause Ex: –thatwhich who whom whose Ex: –Harry S. Truman, who became president when Franklin D. Roosevelt died, surprised many people with his victory. –Robins are among the birds that migrate south for the winter. –Lilacs, which are known throughout the world for their fragrant flowers, grow best in northern climates.
Practice Identifying Types of Pronouns… Is it relative or interrogative? What is the name of that volcano that erupted in Washington? interrogative The light bulb, which had been flickering for a few days, finally burned out. relative The new teacher, whom I have not met, will start Monday. relative To whom did you lend your textbook? interrogative The only student that could complete the obstacle course was Johnny. relative