13 Trade Routes On what major trade route is Roanoke located? What other major trade routes have existed within the United States?How has this changed over time?
14 Silk RoadsLink pastoral and agricultural peoples, inner and outer Asia“relay trade”Camel caravansClassical period: links Rome, Han, Persia7th and 8th centuries: links Byzantine, Abbasid, and Tang/Song13th and 14th: Mongol Empire links Asia and Europe
16 Silk Roads Silk Disease Luxury good (elite) Chinese monopoly on production until 600sDiseaseSmallpox and measlesBubonic plague hits Byzantium 534 to 750Reaches Europe from China during Mongol control of Silk Roads
17 Indian Ocean Trade Lower transportation costs= transport more goods Major changes CE:1. Reemergence of China2. Rise of Islam (trade-friendly)
19 Southeast AsiaHeavily influenced by India (Hinduism and Buddhism) and ChinaMalay sailors opened all-sea route from India to ChinaMalay kingdom of SrivijayaGold, spices (cloves, nutmeg), taxes on shipsBuddhist monasteriesBorobudurAngkor
20 Borobudur: 9th century Mahayana Buddhist temple (Java, Indonesia)
21 Angkor Wat (Hindu Buddhist temple in Cambodia)
22 East Africa: Swahili culture Bantu migrations:fishing & farming villagesTraded gold, ivory, quartz, leopard skins, slavesSwahili city-statesCEcosmopolitanArab, Indian, and Persian visitorsNavigational knowledge
23 East Africa: Swahili culture Social StratificationClass distinctions between merchant elite and commonersIslam as unifying forceSyncretismSwahili language: African language written in ArabicGreat Zimbabwepowerful inland statesupplier of gold to Indian Ocean trade network
24 Trans-Sahara trade North Africa Began in Sudan with Niger Valley civilizationcamel c. 300gold* from West Africaivory, kola nuts, and slavesTraded salt, horses, cloth, dates, manufactured1300s: Mali monopolizes gold and salt trade
25 Trans-Sahara Trade Ghana, Mali, and Songhai West Africa powerful trading kingdomsWealth from trade and slaveryWest AfricaCosmopolitanUrbanIslamic
27 Famous Voyagers Who are some famous voyagers from history? What sort of person goes on a voyage?Have you ever been on a voyage?What did you see, do, and learn?Do you enjoy experiencing other cultures? Why?
28 Xuanzang 7th century Buddhist monk Purpose was to find true Buddhist scriptures in IndiaTraveled on Silk Road,converted pirates who tried to rob himImportance: help understand Buddhism and cultures along Silk Road
32 Ibn Btutta Arab scholar Born in Morocco Visited Spain, Anatolia, West and East Africa, Arabia, Iraq, Persia, Central and Southeast Asia, India, ChinaCritical of Islam on the frontierImportance: illustrate vast expanse of Islamic civilization, never an “outsider”
34 Zheng HeLed Chinese sailing expeditions throughout Indian Ocean basin and Southeast AsiaLarge ships with trade goods and soldiersChinese government halted voyagesUninterested in foreign tradeCostly wars against MongolsExpensive building project in Beijing