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Public Meeting to Receive Comments on NCs Potential Recommendation Designations for PM 2.5 in North Carolina.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Meeting to Receive Comments on NCs Potential Recommendation Designations for PM 2.5 in North Carolina."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Meeting to Receive Comments on NCs Potential Recommendation Designations for PM 2.5 in North Carolina

2 What are Designations? Federal Action under the Clean Air Act In Code of Federal Regulations, CFR Based on Measured Air Quality Levels; Non-Attainment - Areas Exceeding Federal Ambient Air Quality Standards

3 Which Air Pollutants are Involved? Ground Level Ozone, 8 - Hour Average –Designation Recommendations Due July 15, 2003 Fine Particle, PM 2.5 –Designation Recommendations Due February 15, 2004 Todays meeting is focused on PM2.5

4 Human Hair (70 µm diameter) Hair cross section (70 m) PM 2.5 (2.5 µm) PM 10 ( 10µm ) M. Lipsett, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment A complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets Particulate Matter: What is It?


6 Fine Particles: Why You Should Care

7 Public Health Risks Are Significant Particles are linked to: Premature death from heart and lung disease Aggravation of heart and lung diseases –Hospital admissions –Doctor and ER visits –Medication use –School and work absences And possibly to –Lung cancer deaths –Infant mortality –Developmental problems in children, such as low birth weight

8 Particles Affect the Lungs and Heart Respiratory system effects –Chronic bronchitis –Asthma attacks –Respiratory symptoms (cough, wheezing, etc.) –Decreased lung function –Airway inflammation Cardiovascular system effects –Heart attacks –Cardiac arrhythmias –Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability –Blood component changes

9 Some Groups Are More at Risk People with heart or lung disease –Conditions make them vulnerable Older adults –Greater prevalence of heart and lung disease Children –More likely to be active –Breathe more air per pound –Bodies still developing

10 We Must Move Ahead Implementation of the fine particle standards is estimated to prevent: –Thousands of premature deaths from heart and lung disease every year –Tens of thousands of hospital admissions and emergency room visits –Millions of school and work absences due to aggravated asthma and other lung and heart diseases

11 PM 2.5 In Ambient Air: A Complex Mixture

12 EPAs Role: Protecting and Improving Air Quality EPA set national air quality standards for fine particles in 1997 –Annual std: 15 micrograms per cubic meter, averaged over 3 years –24-hour std: 65 micrograms per cubic meter, 98 th percentile averaged over 3 years New standards withstood all legal challenges Moving forward now to implement standards

13 PM2.5 Standards Under Review Ongoing work to evaluate current standards Potential lowering of both annual and 24 hour average standard Potential new PM coarse standard Not likely to be issued for two years Todays meeting is to focus on current standards

14 Average Annual PM2.5 Concentrations July 2000 – June 2003

15 Hickory Area Design Values

16 Charlotte Area Design Values

17 Triad Area Design Values








25 What is EPAs Guidance? Any county with a violating PM2.5 monitor and nearby contributing areas need to be designated as non-attainment EPA recommends the full Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or CMSA serve as the presumptive boundary for PM2.5 non- attainment areas Whole counties Match 8-Hour Ozone Boundaries

26 Factors to be Considered for Larger or Smaller than MSA Emissions and AQ in Adjacent Areas Population Density Monitoring Data Location of Emissions Sources Traffic and Commuting Patterns Expected Growth Meteorology

27 Factors to be Considered for Area Larger or Smaller than MSA Geography/Topography Jurisdictional Boundaries Level of Control of Emission Sources Regional Emission Reductions





32 Option E: Consideration of Spatial Averaging EPA allows establishment of Community Monitoring Zones (CMZs) NC has three CMZs – Buncombe County, Forsyth County, Mecklenburg County NC can use a spatial averaging technique in these CMZs If spatial averaging is used, then the monitors in Forsyth and Mecklenburg attain the PM2.5 annual NAAQS

33 Option E: Continued NC is taking comment on whether spatial averaging should be used The monitors in Forsyth and Mecklenburg Counties may attain by the end of the fourth quarter of 2003 without spatial averaging If they do not, however, spatial averaging is allowed and could show compliance with the standard

34 Reducing Fine Particles Approach must include national, regional and local strategies National efforts under way: –Existing programs such as Acid Rain program and fuel sulfur limits –Rules not yet in effect, such as rule to control emissions from non-road vehicles & equipment The Clear Skies Act NOx/SO2 Transport Rule

35 What is NC doing to solve the air quality problems? Participation in the Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative Adoption of Clean Air Bill of 1999 Adoption of NOx SIP Call Rule Adoption of Clean Smokestacks Act –Encouraging neighboring States to adopt similar legislation Participation in Southeasts Regional Haze Planning Organization (VISTAS)

36 Some Local Reduction Programs Opportunities to address PM-2.5 nonattainment Making vehicles cleaner Diesel engine retrofit programs Clean vehicle fleet programs Diesel idling, smoking cars reduction programs Reducing the impact of burning Wood stove retrofit incentives Open burning impact reduction

37 Review: Next Steps Public Meetings – December 2-4, 2003 Public Comment Period – December 31, 2003 Consider Comments Consult with Other Departments Send Draft Recommendation to Governor – January 23, 2004 State Sends Recommendation to EPA – February 15, 2004

38 How Do I Comment? E-mail: – –Send e-mails by December 31, 2003 Mail: –Sheila Holman –NC Division of Air Quality –1641 Mail Service Center –Raleigh, NC 27699-1641 –Send comments so that they are received by December 31, 2003

39 2003: Dec.Propose implementation rule 2004: Feb. States/Tribes submit nonattainment area recommendations SpringPropose PM-2.5 transport rule Dec.Finalize implementation rule Dec. EPA designates nonattainment areas 2005: SpringEPA finalizes PM2.5 transport rule 2007: Dec. States/Tribes submit implementation plans 2009: Dec. Attain standards PM 2.5 Implementation Timeline

40 For More Information: Visit our website: –Division of Air Quality – e-mail; phone: –; (919) –; (919) –; (704) –; (828) –; (336) –Don Willard,; (704) 336- –Bob Fulp,; (336)

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