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Exploration & Colonization Chapter 3 and 4 Notes
Why did Europeans want to explore? GOD the desire to spread Christianity GLORY GOLD To find a direct sea route to Asia European merchants wanted to bypass Italian and Muslim traders, and sell spices and luxuries from the East themselves
Prince Henry Son of the Portuguese king Also known as Prince Henry the Navigator In 1419 he founded a navigation school for mapmakers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, scientists and sea captains Portuguese established trading posts along west coast of Africa
Engraving of Prince Henry the Navigator arriving in Africa
Bartolomeu Dias Portuguese explorer In 1487 sailed around the southern tip of Africa Explored SE Africa and then returned home Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer In 1489, sailed around the southern tip of Africa and to the SW coast of India (27,000 miles) Returned home with spices First direct sea route to India
Christopher Columbus Italian sea captain In 1492, convinced Spain that he could reach India by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean Led to European exploration of the Americas
Christopher Columbus Where did Columbus land? What did he call the people he found living there? WHY? The Spanish planned on turning the islands into colonies, or land that is controlled by another nation An island in the Bahamas “los indos” or Indians He thought he had arrived in the East Indies
Spanish Conquistadors CONQUISTADOR: 15 th century Spanish explorers and conquerors, such as: Hernan Cortes Conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Inca Empire in Peru
Portugal & Spain in the Americas Line of Demarcation – 1493; imaginary line north and south through the Atlantic Ocean by Pope Alexander VI Treaty of Tordesillas – 1494 agreement between Spain and Portugal that both agreed to honor
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas 1493 Line of Demarcation Why was Portugal upset with the Line of Demarcation?
The Dutch Begin to Explore Portugal dominated trade with the East… other European nations wanted to join in By 1600 the Dutch were a leading sea power, and (with the help of the English) ended Portuguese control of trade Dutch East India Company: company founded by the Dutch to establish and direct trade through Asia
Other Explorers AMERIGO VESPUCCI: In 1501, he realized that the land Columbus discovered was a “new world” and not the East Indies FERDINAND MAGELLAN: In 1519, he sailed around the southern tip of South America and into the Pacific… continued until they reached the Philippines Magellan killed in a local war in the Philippines Only 18 of Magellan’s 230 men survived the voyage
French explorers in North America… Where did they go? Jacques Cartier Samuel de Champlain Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet Sieur de La Salle Followed the St. Lawrence River to Montreal, Canada Sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Quebec (New France) Explored the Great Lakes & the upper Mississippi River Explored the lower Mississippi River & claimed and named Louisiana for Louis XIV, king of France
English Settlements in America Jamestown (1607) Became the first permanent English settlement in North America Located in Virginia Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620) Settled by Pilgrims who sought religious freedom Wanted to build a “city upon a hill” for other Christians to follow Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628) Settled by Puritans who also sought religious freedom from the Anglican Church
French & Indian War: Conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America from 1754-1763 British victory… Britain gained control of the eastern half of North American European Territorial Claims in North America… circa 1700
Atlantic Slave Trade Why did the Europeans want to bring African slaves into their American colonies? Why couldn’t they use Native Americans? Why Africans? Cheap labor Too many had died from diseases brought by the Europeans Immunity to disease Experience in farming Strangers to America… less likely to try and escape
Atlantic Slave Trade… also known as Triangular Trade
Captured slaves in Africa
The Middle Passage: The voyage from Africa to the West Indies, and later North & South America
The Middle Passage
Treatment of Slaves in America
The Columbian Exchange: transfer of food, plants and animals during the colonization of the Americas
Commercial Revolution Commercial Revolution – the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16 th and 17 th centuries Growth of capitalism: economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit Joint-stock companies: business in which investors pool their wealth for a share of the profits
Mercantilism Mercantilism: economic policy in which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by: getting a lot of gold & silver selling more goods than they buy… also known as a favorable balance of trade What was the goal of mercantilism? How did colonies help in this goal? To be self-sufficient and not depend on other countries for goods They provided gold & silver, and raw materials for the home country
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