2 SBEAP Small Business Environmental Assistance Program A technical, administrative and regulatory support program on pollution issues for small businessCirculation of regulatory and other informationWork with trade Associations Training Workshops
3 SBEAP Small Business Environmental Assistance Program Permitting AssistanceExplaining Clean Air Act Amendment RequirementsNotifying affected industry of new regulationsHelp with technical & compliance problems
4 SBEAP Referrals Advocate for small business during regulatory process Small Business Environmental Assistance ProgramReferralsAdvocate for small business during regulatory processDevelopment of brochures, manuals, fact sheets, etc.Training
6 Every Kilowatt-hour saved prevents Pollution PreventedEvery Kilowatt-hour saved prevents1.5 lbs. of carbon dioxide (one of the Greenhouse Gases)5.8 Grams of sulfur dioxide (one of the leading causes of acid rain)2.5 Grams of nitrogen oxides (one of the main components of smog)
7 To produce $100 worth of electricity Energy ProductionTo produce $100 worth of electricity1700 lbs. of coal are mined2500 lbs. of carbon dioxide is produced (Greenhouse gas)21.3 lbs. of sulfur dioxide is produced (acid rain)9.2 lbs. of nitrogen oxides are produced (smog)
8 Ways You Can Save Money Through Energy Conservation Replacing older lights with more efficient lightsReplacing incandescent lights with new compact fluorescent lightsReplacing older appliances with Energy Star Labeled products.
9 Fluorescent Tube Lamps Most commonly used for large office type areasNot very effective for lighting high ceiling areasVery commonly used therefore reasonably cheapNew tubes contain less mercury and meet EPA mercury standards
10 Compact Fluorescent lamps (CFL) Last longer and use less energy (about 1/4th) than incandescent bulbsCan be used in most all locations that incandescent bulbs can be usedHigh-Bay compact fluorescent luminaires can be used for high ceiling areasMost not capable of dimming or starting at low temperaturesCFL's can also allow more light to be produced out of fixtures that are limited in wattage due to the heat produced by incandescent bulbs. This is due to the less heat produced and the higher efficacy of CFL lamps.
11 Incandescent bulbsOnly five percent of energy put into an incandescent bulb is converted to light.Operate on principle of resistance, the least efficient method
12 How do CFLs compare to incandescent bulbs CFLs use about 75% less energy than incandescent bulbsCFLs last ten or more times as long, reducing maintenance hasslesCFLs don't produce as much heat which will lower cooling costsCan estimate what wattage CFL to use by dividing incandescent wattage by 4
13 Color Rendering Index (CRI) The CRI is a relative scale indicating how perceived colors match actual colors.CRI is excellent color rendition0-55 CRI is poor color renditionMost T8 lamps have a CRI ofCool white T-12 lamps have a CRI of 62CFLs have a typical CRI of 82-86
14 Life ExpectancyMeasured in hours of expected operationIncandescent bulbs are rated at 750 to 2000 hoursFluorescent lamps last 6000 to hours, 10 times as long as incandescentsBallasts may last as long as 40,000 to 100,000 hours
15 Just what are the numbers? In Tennessee the average cost of electricity is about $0.063 per kWhMost businesses use indoor lighting 3650 hours a year.
16 L&C Tower upgradeThey replaced the older F40T12 lights with F32T8 Phillips Alto lampsThe old ballasts were replaced with Magnetek 4 lamp instant start electronic ballasts at 75% outputPayback of about two years with savings estimated at over $40,000 per year and a 41% reduction in electrical usagePrevented over 450 tons of CO2
17 Energy Star EquipmentEnergy Star labeled equipment can reduce energy use due to special features like sleep mode and low power standby mode.There are around 7000 different product models in 31 areas that have been Energy Star labeled.Some estimates of saving from a washing machine with the Energy Star label for instance are around $100 a year and 7100 gallons of water. If all families in America used such estimates of savings are around $6.7 billion a year.
19 Other energy saving practices Encourage machines to be turned off for the night or weekend if they are not neededUse double sided printing and copyingInsulate water heaters, consider on-demand water heatersClean refrigerator coils
20 Common Heating Systems Electric Electric Resistance COP = 1.0Air Source Heat Pump COP ~ 2.5Also air conditionsGeoExchange Heat Pump COP ~ 3.55
21 Electric Resistance Heating Heaters and Electric Furnaces Hot wire heating elementsLowest initial costHighest energy costCost can be exorbitant if on demand billing6
22 Least maintenance of combustion systems Gas FurnaceLeast maintenance of combustion systemsNew 90 + AFUE condensing furnaces recover latent heat from water in flue gasSome do not require flue, can vent through pipe. More flexible installation10
23 Air Source Heat Pumps Advantages Most widely used hereService readily availableNewer units have SEER competitive with GeoExchangeHighest efficiency to date is 18 SEER in a split system17
24 Air Source Heat Pumps Advantages Some new high efficiency units available with new 410a HFC ozone safe refrigerant.Carrier/Bryant/Day and Night ( Puron)Rheem/Ruud ( Prozone )Lower first cost than geoexchange18
25 Air Source Heat Pumps Disadvantages Heating efficiency drops in cold weatherwhen needed mostEfficiency decreases as heat exchangers deteriorateMore complex because of reversing for defrost cycleHigh maintenance and noiseUse resistance heat during defrostNot good if on demand billing19
27 Air Source Heat Pumps Disadvantages Heating efficiency drops in cold weatherwhen needed mostEfficiency decreases as heat exchangers deteriorateMore complex because of reversing for defrost cycleHigh maintenance and noiseUse resistance heat during defrostNot good if on demand billing19
28 GeoExchange Heat Pump Advantages Lowest total life cycle costLeast overall pollution ( EPA Study )Lowest maintenanceSmall - No heat exchanger cleaningLarge - No boiler or cooling tower maintenanceHighest efficiencyLeast noiseExpected longest life ( indoor installation)20
29 GeoExchange Heat Pump Advantages Sizes from 1/2 to over 1000 tonsInstallation flexibilityMany small units on one loop allows individual control at small cost premium -or-One large unitRetrofits may use some existing equipment21
30 Lowest Cost /Least Polluting Units Geoexchange heat pump/water heaterHigh efficiency gas furnace and high efficiency electric AC ( split system )Gas water heaterHigh efficiency electric heat pump26
31 News You Can Use Decrease Solar Load Plant trees !Whole house fanAdequate Attic VentilationAdequate insulationAwnings over windowsLight colored roofsLight colored blinds/shades/window film25