Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 – North and South Lesson 41 – People in the North."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 7 – North and South Lesson 41 – People in the North
Review With the improvement of machines in industry, transportation, and communication, the new regions of the Midwest were able to grow. Although farming became more profitable, the people of the North still leaned towards industry. It was difficult to make a living farming the rocky soil of New England, but industry and factories flourished in the area.
Northern Factories As the factory system developed, working conditions worsened. Employers demanded that employees work longer hours, which led to more on- the-job accidents. Factory work involved many dangerous conditions, leading to workers suffering injuries like lost fingers and broken bones.
Northern Factories Young children were often used because they were inexpensive labor, but were at a higher risk of injury. Working conditions were unpleasant. For example, the factories were extremely hot due to temperatures outside and the heat created by the machines, and there was no air conditioning, or air circulation.
Northern Factories Workers began to organize to improve working conditions by the 1830s. Skilled workers formed trade unions, or organizations of workers with the same trade, out of fear of the factory system. Eventually, unskilled workers began to organize as well.
Trade Unions on Strike Skilled workers in New York City went on a series of strikes in 1830s, refusing to work in order to put pressure on employers to improve working conditions. The workers wanted higher wages and to limit their workday to 10 hours a day.
African American Workers Slavery had almost completely disappeared in the North by the 1830s, but racial prejudice still remained. Unfair opinions and discrimination with unfair treatment remained. For example, many northern states made laws that prevented African Americans to vote.
African American Workers Most African Americans were not allowed to attend public schools and were banned from most public facilities. African Americans were forced into segregated, or separate, schools and hospitals with very little resources.
Women Workers Although women played an important role in the development of the factory system, they did not have many opportunities in the 1830s. Women were excluded from the trade unions, as male workers wanted women to be kept out the workplace so there would be more jobs for men.
Rise of Cities Growth of Northern cities came with the growth of factories. People looking for work, especially small farmers, moved to the cities where most of the factories were located. Small villages, like St. Louis, Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati, that were located along major rivers became major cities due to their location.
Immigration Immigration, or the movement of people into a country, to the United States increased during the mid-1800s. American companies were willing to hire the immigrants as they were willing to work long hours for low pay. The largest group of immigrants came from Ireland.
Irish Immigrants More than 1.5 million Irish immigrants arrived to the United States between 1846 and 1860, mostly in the Northeast. The dramatic Irish immigration was due to a potato famine in Ireland that left many starving, killing more than 1 million people.
Irish Immigrants Even though most of the Irish immigrants had been farmers, most of them were too poor to buy land in the United States. Many Irish immigrants took low- paying factory jobs in the Northern cities or manual labor jobs, like working on the railroads.
German Immigrants The German Immigrants were the second largest group to arrive between 1820 and 1860. Many Germans left their homes due to a revolution in Germany in 1848. More than one million Germans came to settle in the United States, many in family groups.
German Immigrants Many German immigrants arrived with enough money to buy farms and businesses. They settled successfully in many parts of the country, creating their own communities and organizations. Some remained in the cities, but many moved to the midwest and western territories.
Impact of Immigration The new immigrants brought with them their languages, customs, religions, and ways of life, some of which became part of American culture. Most of the Irish, and some German, immigrants were Catholic. The Catholic Church became a center of community life for the immigrants in the cities.
Prejudice Against Immigrants Anti-immigrant feelings grew during the 1830s and 1840s because many Americans feared that the immigrants were changing the culture of the United States too much. Nativists were Americans who felt immigrants threatened the future of “native” American born citizens.
Nativists Nativists blamed immigrants for taking jobs from “real” Americans, upset that immigrants would work for less pay. Nativists also blamed the immigrants for bringing crime and disease to the American cities. Immigrants that lived in the poor, overcrowded parts of the cities were the most likely targets of this prejudice.
The Know-Nothing Party The nativists created a political party that was anti-Catholic, and when asked questions about their organization, they would commonly answer by saying, “I know nothing.” The party wanted stricter citizenship laws for the immigrants. In the 1850s, the party split into two branches over the issue of slavery.
Conclusion Factories led the economy of the North in the early 1800s. Cities in the North continued to grow due to the movement of people looking for jobs in the many factories. Life changed for many in the north as immigrants moved into the northern cities, looking for a new life. This led to a new political party whose main focus was to keep immigrants from out.
Assignments Answer the four review questions for this lesson. In your notebook, describe how the cities in the North grew and how the culture of the North changed. You will have a Unit 7 test after you complete Lesson 45