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Barriers to Participation in Clinical Trials Pediatric Oncology

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Presentation on theme: "Barriers to Participation in Clinical Trials Pediatric Oncology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Barriers to Participation in Clinical Trials Pediatric Oncology

2 Director, Clinical Trials Management Oncology Programs
Jeana Cromer, MPH, CCRP Director, Clinical Trials Management Oncology Programs St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Comprehensive Cancer Center

3 Agenda Childhood Cancer – Overview
Regulations and Legislation for Pediatric Research Ethics of Pediatric Research

4 Overview of Childhood Cancer

5 Ref: Hirschfield, et al JCO 2003. Vol 21 pp1066-1073
Background 1 million diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA <1% Childhood cancers 170,000 lung cancer per year 175,000 breast cancer per year 179,000 prostate cancer per year 10,000 – 12,000 pediatric cancer patients per year Ref: Hirschfield, et al JCO Vol 21 pp

6 Childhood Cancer Facts
In 2007, approximately 10,400 children diagnosed with cancer Approximately 1,545 will die from disease Leading cause of death by disease in children 1-14 years American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society. Retrieved December 26, 2007, from

7 Childhood Cancer Incidence and Survival Rates
11.5 cases per 100,000 children in 1975 14.8 cases per 100,000 children in 2004 5-year survival rates for all cancers combined 58.1% ( ) to 79.6% ( ) Significant advances in treatment and supportive care Clinical trials research SEER Cancer Statistics Review,

8 Common Types of Childhood Cancer
Leukemias - ALL and AML Cancers of the central nervous system – Brain tumors Neuroblastoma Sarcomas – osteosarcoma, Ewings, soft tissue Lymphomas – Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Liver Cancers – hepatocelluar, hepatoblastoma Kidney tumors – Wilms, clear cell sarcoma Retinoblastoma Germ Cell Tumors Other Rare Tumors – melanoma, adrenocortical, nasopharyngeal carcinoma

9 Childhood Cancer Incidence
Incidence of childhood cancer peaks in the first year of life Incidence is higher for children under 5 years of age and ages 15-19 Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamra T, Young JL, Bunin GR (eds). Cancer Incidence and Survival among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program , National Cancer Institute, SEER Program. NIH Pub. Nol Bethesda, MD, 1999

10 Incidence Varies by Type and Age
The types of cancer in young children under 5 years (neuroblastoma, Wilms, retinoblastoma, hepatoblastoma, ependymoma) are very uncommon in adolescents (years 15-19) Cancers common in adolescents (germ cell tumors, lymphomas, bone cancers) are rarely diagnosed in younger children Cancers most commonly diagnosed in adults (lung, breast, colon) rarely occur in adolescents or children Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamra T, Young JL, Bunin GR (eds). Cancer Incidence and Survival among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program , National Cancer Institute, SEER Program. NIH Pub. Nol Bethesda, MD, 1999

11 Regulations and Legislation

12 Regulatory Approvals (FDA-CDER) 1979-2004
>100 drugs approved for cancer treatment 50 new molecular entities (NME) approved for adult cancers Only 7 NME submissions for pediatric oncology 2 approved (teniposide and clofarabine) Ref: Hirschfield, et al JCO Vol 21 pp

13 Key Challenges for Pediatric Drug Development
Historical Lack of Pediatric Labeling Tragedies in children led to regulations “Therapeutic Orphans” Children are not “mini-adults” or “little adults” Small Pediatric Market – limited marketing potential Difficult Trials Small #s, difficult outcome measures, need for formulation development (smaller doses, oral formulations) Ethical and Liability Issues

14 Key Challenges for Pediatric Drug Development
Differences between disease in adult vs pediatric (pathophysiology, PK, organ maturity, etc) Cannot always extrapolate from adult data Differences in pediatric age groups Need to ensure representation from relevant age groups in studies Challenges with procedures/sampling: blood volumes, diagnostic vs research procedures Formulations – smaller doses, oral formulations Ethical considerations: consent, assent, permission

15 General Principles: ICH E-11
Pediatric patients should be given medicines that have been properly evaluated for their use in the intended population Product development programs should include pediatric studies when pediatric use is anticipated Pediatric development should not delay adult studies nor adult availability Shared responsibility among companies, regulatory authorities, health professionals, and society as a whole

16 Pediatric Goals Provide adequate product information for drugs and biologics that will be used to treat children Establishment of mechanisms for the safe and effective development of pediatric medications

17 FDA Principles Adequate labeling Safety Efficacy

18 History of Pediatric Regulations/Legislation
FDAMA Pediatric Exclusivity -1997 Pediatric Rule Regulation -1998 Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) October 2007: reauthorization of BPCA and PREA

19 What Have We Learned For many products studied:
There was new dosing information, or It was not effective, or It had a new pediatric safety issue Long term safety and effects on growth, learning, and behavior continue to be understudied Neonates still remain mostly unstudied as to the safety and efficacy of the therapies being used to treat them.

20 Ethics of Pediatric Research

21 Challenges for Pediatric Oncology Drug Development
Impact of Treating Childhood Cancer: Lives Saved Challenges for Pediatric Oncology Drug Development Most children with cancer enrolled on clinical trials but Very small patient populations Studies may be difficult to enroll, long time to complete

22 Why Involve Children in Research?
Develop treatment for childhood diseases Retinopathy of prematurity Cystic fibrosis Cancer Data in adults may not be generalizable May result in over/under dosage of medications Pathophysiology may be different Toxicities may be different

23 Why Involve Children in Research?
Consequences of not involving children is research: Perpetuation of harmful practices Introduction of untested practices Failure to develop new treatments for childhood diseases The Pediatric Gap: New Yorker, 1/10/05

24 Regulatory Framework: Pediatric Research
OHRP FDA HHS conducted or supported research Domestic* International 45 CFR 46 Subpart A (“Common Rule”) Subpart B (Fetus, Pregnant Women) Subpart C (Prisoners) Subpart D (Children) Research that involves products regulated by FDA 21 CFR 50, 56 Part 50: Protection of Human Subjects Subpart D (Children) Interim Rule Part 56: IRBs 21 CFR 312 – INDs 21 CFR 361 – Drugs used in research Applies to: Regulatory Protection of Human Subjects: *Domestic institutions may elect to apply 45 CFR 46 to all of its research regardless of source of support

25 Risk Benefit Categories for IRB Consideration of Pediatric Studies
Code of Federal Regulations Title 45 Part 46 Subpart D and FDA 50.

26 Issues in Pediatric Research
Designation as “vulnerable” adds a layer of protection as well as denying access Children lack legal capacity to consent Many are incapable of understanding research Pediatric trials are more difficult to complete


28 Principals of Medical Ethics
Respect for person is dominant principle for adult ethics (autonomy) Beneficence is dominant principle for pediatric ethics (best interests of child)

29 Questions in Pediatric Ethics
Should a particular therapy be given? BENEFICIENCE Who should make a consent decision? AUTONOMY The answers may be incompatible

30 Consent, Assent, and Permission
An adult’s voluntary agreement, based upon adequate knowledge and understanding of relevant information/legal capacity/sufficient understanding Assent A child’s affirmative agreement Permission A parent’s or guardian’s agreement

31 Limits of Parental Authority
Bests Interests of the Child reasonable range of options not always separable from family interests Parental Incompetence Neglect or Abuse

32 Informed Consent vs Parental Permission
Autonomous authorization of adults on their own behalf is more robust than parental permission for children by proxy/surrogate “…the pediatrician’s responsibility to his or her patient exist independent of parental desires or proxy consent.” AAP 1995 statement on informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice

33 Purposes of Assent Provide information to the young person
Offer shared decision making with the parents Honor the young person’s dissent

34 Assent: A Clinical Definition
Awareness of the nature of his/her condition What to expect with tests and treatment(s) Assessment of understanding (including pressure to accept) Soliciting an expression of willingness to accept the proposed test/treatment

35 Authority of Assent Therapeutic studies with direct benefit available only in the context of research: NO Therapeutic studies with no direct benefit: YES Non-therapeutic studies: YES

36 Key Concepts for Children to Understand about Research Participation
What is required of them Duration of their participation Personal risks and benefits Voluntariness Freedom to ask questions

37 Assent/Parental Permission*
The IRB must determine that adequate provisions are made for soliciting the assent of children when in the judgment of the IRB the children are capable of providing it: Age/Maturity Intellectual development Psychological, emotional state *21 CFR 50.55, 45CFR46.408

38 Assent/Parental Permission*
The assent of the child is not a necessary condition for proceeding with the clinical investigation if: The capability of some or all of the children is so limited that they cannot be reasonably be consulted The intervention or procedure holds out a prospect of direct benefit that is important to the health or well-being of the children and is available only in the context of the clinical investigation *21 CFR 50.55, 45CFR46.408

39 Pediatric Research: Emerging Issues
Consent at age of majority Genetic research Family studies (secondary subjects) Non-CLIA approved tests (do we share results?, e.g. MRD)


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