Presentation on theme: "January 18 th * Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment *Agenda* 1. Chapter."— Presentation transcript:
January 18 th * Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment *Agenda* 1. Chapter 3 – Ecology Notes 2. HW – Notes 4.2 only and Ecological pyramid worksheet STEP IT UP! Do NOT drop the BALL!
Ecology Is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings. Is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings.
Levels of Organization Species Species –Group of organisms that can reproduce Population Population –Groups of individual that live in the same area Communities Communities –Different populations that live in a defined area
Levels of Organization Ecosystem Ecosystem –Collection of all organisms that live in a particular place, and the non- living environment Biome Biome –Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominate communities.
Energy Flow Energy flows through Ecosystems Energy flows through Ecosystems Producers = autotrophs Consumers = heterotrophs
Producers – Sunlight is the main source of energy for most life on earth.
Producers – Some organisms do not rely on sunlight, but rather rely on energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds
An Autotroph Is Any Organism That Can Produce Its Own Food Supply!
Autotrophs = Producer AKA A lso K nown A s PRODUCER captures energy and transforms it into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms.
Photoautotroph Producer That Captures Energy from the sun by: – Photosynthesis Adds Oxygen to the atmosphere Adds Oxygen to the atmosphere Removes Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere Removes Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
On Land On Land – Plants In The Sea In The Sea – Algae Tidal Flats & Salt Marshes Tidal Flats & Salt Marshes – Cyanobacteria Photoautotroph EXAMPLES
Chemoautotroph Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules –No light needed – Hydrogen Sulfide – The Process Is Called: Chemosynthesis
Autotrophs Know the difference between Photosynthesis &Chemosynthesis
Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. Herbivores Herbivores – Eat Only Plants Carnivores Carnivores – Eat Only Other Animals
Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. Omnivores (That’s You) Omnivores (That’s You) – Eat Plants & Animals Detritivores Detritivores – Feed On Dead Plant & Animal Remains Decomposers Decomposers – Breaks down organic matter – Fungi & Bacteria
Feeding Relationships Key Concept: Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from producers to various levels of consumers
Feeding Relationships Food Chain Food Chain – Simple Energy path through an ecosystem Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer Quaternary Consumer
Food Web More realistic path through an ecosystem Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Tertiary Consumer Quaternary Consumer
Trophic Levels Each Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level. Producers Producers – ALWAYS in The First Trophic Level – How Energy Enters The System Herbivores Herbivores – Second Trophic Level Carnivores/Omnivores Carnivores/Omnivores – Make Up The Remaining Trophic Levels
Each level depends on the one below it for energy.
Ecological Pyramids Graphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic Level Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers
Energy Pyramid shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level –Only use 10% of the energy –90% is lost as HEAT
Biomass Pyramid Shows the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level Shows the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level Most biomass?? Most biomass?? –Base (bottom) of the pyramid
Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individuals at each trophic level Shows the relative number of individuals at each trophic level
Biogeochemical Cycles Bio Bio –Life Geo Geo –Geological Chemical Chemical –Elements & Compounds Cycles Cycles –Use and ReUse
4 Biogeochemical Cycles Water Water Nutrients Nutrients –Carbon –Nitrogen –Phosphorus
Recycling in the Biosphere Key Concept: Key Concept: –Unlike the one-way flow of energy, Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Biogeochemical cycles Biogeochemical cycles –Connect Biological, Geological, and Chemical aspects of the Biosphere
Recycling in the Biosphere Matter is NOT used up Matter is NOT used up –It is transformed
Vapor, Precipitation, Run Off (Rivers, Oceans, Groundwater Vapor, Precipitation, Run Off (Rivers, Oceans, Groundwater The Water Cycle
The Water Cycle - Processes Evaporation Evaporation –H 2 0 Changes Liquid to Gas Transpiration Transpiration –Evaporation from Leaves Leaves
Nutrient Cycles –Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.
Carbon Cycle Estimated Carbon in Biosphere Estimated Carbon in Biosphere – 49,000 Metric Gigatons –Metric Gigaton=10 9 Metric Tons or 1,000,000,000 Tons –71% in Oceans –22% Fossilized –3% Dead Organics & Phytoplankton
Importance : Nitrogen Cycle Required for Amino Acids Required for Amino Acids N 2 78% Atmosphere N 2 78% Atmosphere NH3Ammonia NH3Ammonia NO 3 ¯ Nitrate NO 3 ¯ Nitrate NO 2 ¯ Nitrite NO 2 ¯ Nitrite
Phosphorus Cycle Required for DNA & RNA Required for DNA & RNA Not very common in Biosphere Not very common in Biosphere –Found Mostly As Inorganic Phosphate In: Rock & Soil Rock & Soil Ocean Sediments Ocean Sediments
Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus Does NOT Have An Atmosphere Phase
Nutrient Limitation Primary Productivity Primary Productivity –Rate at which organic matter is created Limiting Nutrient Limiting Nutrient –Lack of nutrient slows productivity Human addition of nutrients upsets balance – algal blooms. Human addition of nutrients upsets balance – algal blooms.
Nutrient Limitation Fertilizers Fertilizers –Usually Contain Three Limiting Nutrients Nitrogen Nitrogen Phosphorous Phosphorous Potassium Potassium Oceans Oceans –Nitrogen is the Limiting Nutrient Freshwater Freshwater –Phosphorous is the Limiting Nutrient