WWK How interactions between the hydrosphere and atmosphere cause weather changes!
Atmospheric Pressure Weather is attributed to temperature and atmospheric pressure differences. High Pressure As air descends, it warms, which forms clouds. This is why high pressure is generally associated with good weather. Low Pressure As air rises it cools. And as it cools, the humidity begins to condense into tiny water droplets, or if it's cold enough, tiny ice crystals. This is what causes rain and snow to fall. This is why low pressure is associated with bad weather.
The Water Cycle o Water Cycle- Movement of water among the various reservoirs on a planetary scale. o Evaporation- The process of water in bodies of water is converted to water vapor due to the heat of the sun and released into the atmosphere. o Transpiration- When water evaporates through the pores in the leaves of plants and the water vapor is released into the atmosphere. o Condensation- Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. o Precipitation- Occurs when enough water has condensed that the clouds get so heavy that the water in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow falls from the clouds. o THEN THE CYCLE STARTS ALL OVER AGAIN!
El Niño El Niño- A temporary change in the climate of the Pacific ocean, in the region around the equator. The ocean goes up by a few degrees Celsius and the place where thunderstorms occur on the equator moves to the east. Happens every 3-7 years. Effects are seen in both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, typically in the Northern hemisphere in the winter. Often associated with wet winters in the southeastern US, as well as drought in Indonesia and Australia.
The sun controls the heating and cooling of the earth. The heat hits the earth and the Albedo (a fraction of solar energy) is reflected back into space. However sometimes this reflected solar energy is caught in the atmosphere heating it up along side other gases creating a Greenhouse Effect. This results in warm weather and some extreme storms too.
Since the sun is so hot it takes a major roll in driving the temperature of our weather. Solar Distribution is the distribution of the suns radiation and heat all over earth. It effects our technology which we use to predict the weather and can cause sudden changes in it too. Many meteorologists use a thermocouple to measure the heat radiated from a celestial body (AKA THE SUN!!)
The sun makes the air very hot then very cold. When the pressure builds up it can result in a funnel cloud. And then comes the tornado. Wind is caused by uneven heating of the sun. When it’s warm for a long time it’s a warm front (same goes for cold fronts). When the two meet BOOM you got a windy day. Hurricanes are created when the sun makes warm air over the equator and then turns very cold. This results in a funnel cloud full of water vapor. Cold air ZOOMS under the rising warm air and begins to circle around up to 187 mph!
KS What instrument is used to measure the heat radiated from a celestial body (AKA THE SUN)?
WWK We will know how human activity such as driving has a negative affect on Earth’s climate.
Global warming: o The increase in the earth’s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate is known as global warming. o WHAT IS CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING? o For decades scientists have tried to figure that out. After looking at natural cycles and events that are known to influence the climate the amount and pattern of warming that was measured could not explain the factors alone. The only way to explain these factors are to include the effect of greenhouse gases emitted by humans.
Human activities: o It is said that human activities has a major affect on Earth’s climate. Such a major affect that they say we are causing global warming. Some of the activities that process greenhouse gases are: o Agricultural activities like using nitrogen-based synthetic fertilizers o Landfill methane emissions o The enteric fermentation of livestock waste o Changes in wetland structure o Deforestation o Emission fluorinated gases in refrigeration systems and fire suppression systems o Burning of fossil fuels o Driving
Greenhouse gases: o There are many greenhouse gases responsible for global warming and through the varieties things humans do there are four primary greenhouse gases, gases that absorb and releases radiation within our atmosphere, that we emit into the atmosphere. These are: o Carbon dioxide: Through fossil fuels burning, solid waste rotting, trees being cut down, or certain chemical reactions carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gases most responsible for global warming. o Methane: Through the burning of fossil fuels or the result of fermentation of organic and livestock waste in solid waste facilities methane enters the atmosphere. This is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. o Nitrous oxide: Through many industrial and agricultural practices nitrous oxide is released into the atmosphere. o Fluorinated gases: Fluorinated gases are all the synthetic gases that enter the atmosphere through various human activities such as running the air conditioner.