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MAKING IT WORK: Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process 2nd SLL Activity Were you more successful completing.

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Presentation on theme: "MAKING IT WORK: Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process 2nd SLL Activity Were you more successful completing."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAKING IT WORK: Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process 2nd SLL Activity Were you more successful completing activity? Why/why not? Did you learn any new Spanish words? which? why/why not?


3 TIER I Introduce graphic organizer!

4 TIER I INSTRUCTION Where most of the changes are needed to state that an ELL student has received appropriate instruction.

Normal Curve Equivalents Dual Language 61 Bilingual 52 Transitional Bilingual w/ ESL Content 40 Transitional Bilingual 35 ESL thru content 34 ESL Pullout 24 50 NCE is 50th percentile—where monolinguals are each year Kids in ESL programs were most likely to drop out—kids in top 2 program least likely to drop out --Thomas & Collier, 1997

Regular class instruction—no support ESL Pull-out—leave class w/ ESL teacher to receive small group support once a week—up to 5 x/week Push-in—ESL teacher comes into the classroom and provide support 1-5x/week Dual Langauge—literacy & content instruction in L1 & L2 Maintenance Bilingual—teach content in L1 & L2, but literacy is more geared toward L2 Transitional Bilingual—provide L2 support as needed, with intent to mainstream to regular class in a few year years 9.8% would be expected to achieve grade level reading skills according to previous graph DELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 2008

Lack of exposure to appropriate books and people who use academic language Lack of opportunities to learn and use academic language Lack of systematic, explicit instruction and sufficient and supportive feedback 1996 study-ELLs spend 2% of day engaging in academic talk SCARCELLA, 2003

8 TRIPLE EFFECT Triple effect of low comprehension
Don’t understand new info Don’t gain new vocabulary Lose interest lack motivation & self-confidence Triple effect of low comprehension Don’t understand new info Don’t gain new vocab lose interest, motivation & self-confidence

9 IMPROVING CALP Connect academic language with reading & writing activities Provide opportunities to produce the language through interactions content-driven language insruction

10 This is missing in MOST regular education classrooms
UPDATED RESEARCH With intensive literacy & academic language instruction, ELL students can develop CALP by the 4th grade Explicit oral language instruction is needed across all content areas This is missing in MOST regular education classrooms When we ask if students have received appropriate instruction—for most ELL's we will have to say NO. Later we will talk in more detail about how to provide this in the regular classrom.

11 CRITICAL FEATURES Intensive literacy instruction
Extensive vocabulary instruction academic language instruction across content areas Scaffolding/supports provided to increase comprehension Instructional conversations vocab instruction  include member s RTI team and consultation with SLP and/or ESL teacher (or other specialists in school) help at-risk students

Multiple exposure to target words over several days Reading, Writing and Speaking opportunities Emphasize student-friendly definitions Provide regular review research—not enuff time dedicated to this in reg class dedicated to disciplinary vocab, not all-purpose vocab words less is more—more time on fewer concepts—deep learning not work—look up words in dictionary use written content to figure out unplanned, extemporaneous teaching morphology instruction—impt in reading comprehension

School/district core reading program ELLs will need instruction on additional words in the program Instruction will need to be more extensive than recommended by the program most prog teach vocab—improve comprehe of indiv texts but litle effect on overall reading performance worthwhile words—related to central lesson concepts general utility in academic concepts  basic concepts (spatial, quantity, temporal and qualitative)

Teacher study groups using available texts Identify vocabulary to be taught Create student-friendly definitions Create lesson plans for vocabulary instruction Other study groups can be Reading coaches, curricula specialists, summer workshops for teachers, grade-level teams Teachers will need professional development in learning to provide more intensive vocabulary instruction

15 ACTIVITY What words or phrases would present the most difficulty to ELL students? Text 3-4th gr. Level Assume ACCESS level 3 score

16 SLP SUPPORT Identify antonyms and synonyms (e.g. “What means the same as…”) Sentence completion (e.g. “It was dark so she turned on the _____”) Multiple meaning words (e.g. Give me 2 meanings for “bat”) Describing (e.g. “tell me 2 things to describe a…”) Categorizing and Classifying (e.g. Tell me 5 things that are cold) Grammar knowledge (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.) Syntax knowledge – parts of a sentence (S-V-O) Games, word walls, visual support

17 ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Instructional time should focus on
explicit instruction of academic English adverbial forms conditional sentences prepositions words that express relationships Reading, discussing and writing about texts needs to be a central part of the language development instruction dispersed throughout the day 2nd point—scaffolding and other strategies to be discussed later will help to increase academic language Research suggests should progress monitor ELLs' English proficiency because has direct bearing on academic success ESL teacher can push-in aid w/ lesson plan more intensive instruction for small group Gersten et al. (2007) , 2007

Schedule regular blocks of English instruction time It increases the time ELLs have to learn the language Instruction spaced throughout the day provides better opportunities for deep processing and retention The focus is clearly on language teachers-professional development few teaching prog.s include linguistics classes Gersten et al. (2007) , 2007

19 EARLY ELEMENTARY MORPHOLOGY SYNTAX VOCABULARY Morphology—study of word meanings, looking at word parts to understand meaning more morphologically complex words in written & academ lang than spoken lang more are Span cognates Syntax—word order Study these at age appropriate level before they're reading

20 FOR ELL READERS Discuss text & the language in structured ways
Verb tense, plurals, use of adjectives & adverbs Use language in a variety of situations Tell stories Describe events Explain problems Question intentions 1st year arrive—must also instruct on informal, social language Gersten et al. (2007) , 2007

21 LESSON PLANS Content Objectives Language Objectives
what students will learn to do Language Objectives language function or skill that the student will use in the lesson Teachers more mindful & purposeful about developing students' language skills. Language objectives help them to focus on a specific language skill. SIOP Model emphasizes this & is a good resource in learning to do this.

22 SCAFFOLDING Realia Pictures Videos Demonstrations
Hands-on Manipulatives Graphic Organizers Total Physical Response Feedback L1 Support Model Performance Indicators videos—use closed captioning—student could also review later with Hispanic subtitles (may not want them during class because then not focusing on attaining the English vocabulary—depends on their level of proficiency) Lesson Plan—point out impt vocab graphic organizer—similar to what doing now Total Physical Response: -Developed by James Asher (1977) -Kinesthetic Activities -Helps develop listening skills before verbally producing the language Primary Language Support Provide bilingual picture dictionaries Teach students how to use them Accept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in English Have L1 books & recordings in the listening center Should be similar to the English books in the classroom To reinforce concepts that were taught Send books home to read with a parent or sibling Educational activities Internet resources ****Allow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1

Gives expectations for what students should be able to process & produce at a given proficiency level. Based on the ACCESS test & WIDA's English Language Proficiency Standards Using state academic content standards WIDA Consortium, 2007

24 ACCESS TEST academic type tasks—vocab need in content areas
not content knowledge

Entering (1) single words, short phrases Beginning (2) phrases or short sentences w/ errors Developing (3) expanded sentences w/ some errors Expanding (4) varying linguistic complexity, minimal errors Bridging (5) varying linguistic complexity, approaching comparability to monolinguals REACHING (6) oral & written communication is comparable to English proficient peers ACCESS : LEVELS of ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

26 EXAMPLE LEVEL 1 Match prices/goods with visually supported materials
Example: newspapers or magazines Use oral questions with a partner Example: “Which one costs a lot?” Levels—different levels of proficiency—see how language standard changes based on levels Show content & support in standards This is how teachers need to approach their lessons for ELLs P.34 WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007

27 EXAMPLE LEVEL 4 Predict prices of goods using visually supported materials and oral questions with partner Example: “Which one do you think costs under $1000?” Levels—different levels of proficiency—see how language standard changes based on levels Show content & support in standards This is how teachers need to approach their lessons for ELLs P.34 LESSON PLAN WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007

28 FEEDBACK Model correct grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary
Prevents fossilizing errors Do not point out errors Corrective feedback for errors related to lesson content Should be timely Reflect progress in learning specific information Better than # of correct answers Rubrics are helpful NATALIE HILL & FLYNN, 2006

Provide bilingual picture dictionaries Teach students how to use them Accept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in English Have L1 books & recordings in the listening center Should be similar to the English books in the classroom To reinforce concepts that were taught Send books home to read with a parent or sibling Use resources on the internet Translations ( ) Online bilingual dictionary ( ) Educational activities Allow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1 LESSON PLAN PA activities example: Board Maker software (you can scan word in English and have appear and print in both languages) WRIGHT, 2008

Talk slowly and clearly Paraphrase often Use animated facial expressions & gestures Avoid idioms, or explain them Check in with the student to see if they understand Allow them to use their L1 Truly value the children's cultures NATALIE

31 USE STUDENTS' CULTURE Introducing a lesson:
ask students what experience they have with the topic Students are: emotionally connected to the topic feeling valued as a member of the class motivated to learn more exposed to other cultures & histories Building upon a student’s culture triggers vocabulary & previous knowledge to build on NATALIE Revolution/War—may have personal experience from 1st country, or be surrounded by stories of it from parents/grandparents LESSON PLAN

32 Understanding Text NATALIE scaffolding outlines leveled study guides
highlight text graphic organizers taped text jigsaw text reading marginal notes use native language NATALIE

Preview texts pre-teach troublesome words Frontloading: make direct connections to students' prior knowledge Monitor comprehension during reading  ask questions! Consolidate text summarize & paraphrase NATALIE This to do with class as going through text together.

Allow repetition of key words & phrases Require functional, context-relevant speech “Feedback-rich” Can reduce student anxiety Gives more processing time Can heighten attention levels Can increase motivation & comprehension And finally… LESSON PLAN jigsaw activity need to provide support & goals Diff modes to work on common role play drama completed organizer! HARRY & FLYNN, 2006


36 TIER II Questions from morning? SLL Activity Toca Que es?
success w/ activity? Learn new words? which? why? Tier II—build on Tier in ways that make sense & target student’s weaknesss

37 TIER II Same interventions as monolinguals BUT…
Adaptations for lack of English proficiency Additional academic language instruction Understanding that progress will not be as robust Sensitivity to schedule should not lose exposure time to content area material

38 PA INTERVENTIONS Venn diagrams to compare sounds or words in English & L1 Explicit instruction on pronunciation of sounds & words Encourage pronunciation practice Choral reading, echo reading Sound sorting of pictures Poetry & music *REMEMBER – accent is not a disorder, it is a difference SO – instead of trying to “fix” the child’s accent, think of it as an activity to compare and contrast *the older the student was at time of 1st exposure to English the harder it will be to reduce accent and dialectal differences.

Same reading interventions as for monolingual students, although progress will not be as profound In addition, explicit oral language instruction Vocabulary Grammar/syntax Explicit phonemic instruction may be needed. Intervention needs to be Explicit—each concept clearly and directly explained by the teacher, rather than left to discovery Systematic—skills taught in sequential fashion, not bits of info here and there as topics arise Multisensory—more actively engaged, different ways of encoding the information

Verbal language instruction Focus on vocabulary grammar/syntax Idioms Increased exposure to print Verbal language—the more idioms and phrasing (abstract language) they're familiar with, the easier it will be to use context to anticipate and decode words Same intervention programs as monolinguals effects less pronounced

Explicit direct instruction of word meaning Systematic logical order of difficulty & relevance Extensive generalize across the curriculum Intensive multiple meanings, word relationships & forms NATALIE Francis et al. 2006

42 EXAMPLE: “look” Look around (observe) Look into (investigate)
Look after (take care of) Look for (search) Look out for (be careful with) Look like (look similar) Look over (read, edit, review) Students need to have an understanding of different meaning of words!

43 EXAMPLE: “look” “take a look” (noun”) “I like the looks of it” (noun)
“this is a looking glass” (adjective) “I need to look for it” (infinitive verb) “He looks” (3rd person /s/) “Look at me” (imperative) “She’s looking” (present progressive verb) “We looked around” (regular past tense /-ed/) “They had looked” (past participle) Students need to have an understanding of different meaning of words!

44 COGNATES NATALIE False cognates! e.g. “he is molesting me” Molestar
Portuguese parágrafo sientista humano hora Spanish clase famoso especial centro Haitian Creole entelijian dola oranj radyo NATALIE False cognates! e.g. “he is molesting me” Molestar Embarazada

45 COGNATES Words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling & pronunciation 30-40% of English words have a related word in Spanish More easily related if students have literacy skills in L1 NATALIE Romance languages have cognates with English Spellings more similar than pronunciations 70% of words on academic word list

Practice with expository/narratives ( words) Pre-teach vocabulary Use flash cards Model fluent reading Provide corrective feedback As become familiar with words—experiment more w/ phrasing & intonation REPEATED READINGS

meet oral reading fluency goal read with very few errors read with acceptable phrasing & expression Re- read until …

Continue to focus on building vocabulary K-2nd grade focus on books that are read aloud develop & extend language explicit comprehension strategies Upper Elementary focus on academic language & sentence structures comp strategies: predicting, monitoring & summarizing provide models develop & extend language  through structured talk ***teach to recognize different types of texts & purposes of reading, & how to adjust strategies

49 PROGRESS MONITORING Compare to “true peers”  immigrant generation, level of English proficiency & SES Progress monitoring instrument  What is it really assessing? Error analysis  difference or disorder? Best practice  monitor English language proficiency Lang Prof = could use the SALT or WMLS-R (not weekly, but as different points in the year)

DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES & PROGRESS MONITOR Mean Length of Utterance Vocabulary Use Fluency & Rate of Speech Sentence Complexity Grammatical Error Types # of Grammatical Errors Code-switching Narrative Skills SALT is a computer program used to analyze & interpret language samples communicative interaction narrative tell/retell provides clinicians and researchers with the means to transcribe language samples into a common format & analyze vocabulary knowledge morphosyntax fluency error categories patterns

One day a little boy (he/'s um) he/'s be a :02 frog [EU]. And he is go/ing to your[EW:his] bed. The frog, he/'s go/ing. (When he/'s :02 when he/'s :04 s* :09) when he peek/3s up, the frog is not in the frasc*[CS]. He/'s call/ing to the frog. But (not) not> The dog, he/'s go/*ing down. He/'s (ca*) call/ing to the frog. "Frog, Frog". (He/'s) he/'s call/ing and calling. Then the dog, he/'s (:06 s*) call/ing too. Then :04 he/'s :04 call/ing. He/'s :04 be a :07 bird [EU]. The dog is :03 run/*ing. And he go/3s up. (And) one rock [EU]. He *is :02 call/ing and call/ing. He is (go/ing in in) go/ing (to to) down. He go/3s down. He say/*3s, "Is *it over there"? The boy said, "Shh". And he busc*[CS] over there. And he is over there. And (he) his frog is in your[EW:his] hand. He say bye to the (s*) nothers[EW:other] frog/s.

52 Diagnostic Assessment should include:
BEFORE TIER III Diagnostic Assessment should include: Educational History Family History Language Dominance Specific Reading Skills Specific Language Skills L1 Literacy Skills Working Memory Need person on team who is knowledgeable about issues of student's culture/country Specific language skills—have difficulty w/ grammar or syntax? (SALT) Assess what areas have difficulty Would not be unreasonable to have SLP involved in assessment as long as they understood L1 affects on English Not tx—acad lang instruction

53 EDUCATIONAL HISTORY Educated in another country? When started school?
Attendance? Performance? Remedial support? Performance of students in that country? Educated in other state/districts? L1 literacy instruction? Bilingual program? Preschool? Educated in other country Mexico—don't start until child speaks (age 8 for some!) 4 hrs/day more informal, grp work, student interaction & movement Haiti—education valued, but many in rural areas don't attend b/of fees, school supplies & uniforms Rote learning & memorization is the norm; not expected to have more than 1 right answer—confusing for them here PR—sit & copy from blackboard

54 FAMILY HISTORY Immigration status Level of acculturation
Understanding of school expectations Travel to home country? Parents' English levels Level of academic support Dependence on child for translation What generation of immigrants are they? If their parents were born here, the parents & children will be much more accustomed to the social & academiexpectations, & more comfortable in relating with English speakers If they travel to the home country often, there may be less acculturation. Also, if travel during school year, are missing instruction Translation—family important—children miss school to help parents with dr's appts, etc.

In kindergarten ELLs at-risk for reading can be identified if PA is underdeveloped &/or they have difficulty learning sound-symbol correspondence... If PA is low, do not take the wait & see attitude. Needs interventions

56 BUT… Are they able to hear the phonemes? Are they able to produce the phonemes? Do they understand the task? Are they familiar with the task? If PA is low, do not take the wait & see attitude. Needs interventions

57 BILINGUAL SLP SUPPORT Phonological awareness tasks:
focus on similarities CVC syllable dog  d-og sol  s-ol call attention to differences CVCV syllable casa  c-a-s-a casa  c-asa* *be careful with tests that exploit the similarities between two languages  may make student appear higher with respect to phonological awareness skills above examples  show that child understands onset-rime in the context of a word, but have difficulty at the syllable level Tests tend to have CVC words, which wouldn’t show difficulty in this area AND if you don’t see it when assessing, you may not focus on it enough in TIER I and II supports Hammer & Miccio (2006)

58 ASSESSING IN L1 Low performance in English
PA skills in L1 age-appropriate unfamiliarity with English phonemes explain differences between L1 & English weakness in PA in L1 interventions need target these PA skills ENGLISH L1

59 RHYMING Is not a strategy used in all languages
Recalling rhyming words is affected by a weak vocabulary Recognizing rhyming words can be affected by semantic interference Some countries, including some Spanish-speaking, emphasis more beginning letters than ending Lo, la, las, los Ma, me, mi, mo, mu WIAT & WJ-III have rhyme recall & recognize rhyming tasks

60 What rhymes with...? Semantic interference—lack of understanding of task, so they choose based on category or relationship. Higher cognitive skill than rhyming May use L1 words

Before asking the student to read ensure verbal familiarity with the words in text Discuss the topic & key words in text

If L1 literacy skills are appropriate indicative of limited language proficiency not a learning disability If patterns of errors occur in both languages possible indicator of a learning disability further assessment may be necessary

63 ASSESSING IN L1 Must be done by someone knowledgeable in common errors in L1 English also likely to impact performance in L1 if student exposed to English literacy instruction Example: In Spanish  read “LL” as /L/ instead of /y/

Error analysis is very important: confusing vowel sounds? dropping ending sounds? difficulty with English-only phonemes? allow for accent errors (is = iss)

How many of the words did the student verbally know? Introduce words before reading so will perform better Determine unfamiliar words after reading to understand lower score Do both to see if there is a difference! WJ=III Fluency—words seem more basic, but also adding a comprehension element in deciding if true or not WIAT-II—Quartile score 1-4, not very specific—low ave & deficient in same quartile Introduce words before—really make sure they understand and know the word

Oral Retelling (wpm) Oral fluency is a big factor Cloze Procedure WJ-III: Passage Comprehension Knowledge of syntax & vocabulary are big factors Oral Retelling—count any word, even irrelevant ELL's can recognize & understand many words that they cannot recall independently—the understood it, but can't retell it as fluently Cloze procedure—syntax—should be noun or adjective? Vocabulary—understood sentence but don't know appropriate word

67 CLOZE PROCEDURE He washed his face at the ______. The dog ___ running.
Sink—may not have this vocab word Don't recognize AT would make “bathroom” inappropriate but non-native speakers of English typically make this mistake *response = bathroom  shows that student understands context (i.e. used a noun, not verb or adjective & used contextually appropriate vocabulary) Natalie: I would mark this CORRECT if I were testing vocabulary or grammar in Spanish because could be a dialectal difference  not indicative of language delay/disorder Is—need to understand how to do this verb tense

Q & A WIAT-II BRI-10 Running Record Read text then answer questions More similar to classroom demands than other tests, too Questions can help them frame & recall information Syntax not important WJ vs WIAT

Read title/heading “What do you think it will be about?” access background knowledge Read text aloud mark errors With text available ask comprehension questions use sentence starters Title—They access background knowledge to help them frontload available vocab. YOU assess if they have background knowledge & appropriate vocab for the topic Errors—related to decoding, syntax, grammar? Helps to understand errors in comprehension questions—Did they have trouble reading an essential word? Comprehension—have text available to assist in their word recall. Sentence Starters—if have difficulty understanding the questions, starters might help them understand and express more easily or retelling

70 SENTENCE STARTERS I think the boy felt _____ because ______. The story was about a dragon who______. After pouring in the flour, you need to _____. The story teaches us__________.

71 “I’ve got butterflies in my stomach!”
WHERE WAS THE TROUBLE? Important vocabulary Background knowledge Metaphors/Similes Idioms reunion story inference of underlying dynamics “I’ve got butterflies in my stomach!”

72 WHAT FOLLOWS TIER II? Typically: Increased phonics in TIER III
Instead: may need to modify TIER II TIER II may be repeated many times Expect to be in Tier II for many years!

Fluency Interventions & Vocabulary Building Comprehension Strategies & Vocabulary Building Expect to be in Tier II for long time BREAK! OR

74 TIER III BREAK - first explicit teachers letter/sound correspondence, word patterns & spelling rules (comp strategies?)

May include any/all of the following: Bilingual or ESL Teacher with background in literacy Special Education Teacher Reading Specialist Speech-Language Pathologist May be in Tier III for extended period of time with background in ELL needs

rhyming matching by rhyme & alliteration syllable splitting full phoneme segmentation manipulation of phonemes ADAMS, 1990

Consultation OR Direct Services Know dialectal differences vowel distortions interchangeable sounds in Spanish (e.g. /b/, /v/) sounds not common to Spanish (e.g. /z/, /sh/) Use gesture & visual cue Example: “Easy Does It” hand cues highlight words that have sound show different spellings for same sound in English show frequency of that sound used in text

SYLLABLES ACCENTS MORPHOLOGY NATALIE Syllables: Type of syllable gives clues about the sounds of the vowels Closed—syllable ends w/ a consonant hat, got, hip, mend Open—syllable ends with a vowel he, go, hi me Vowel-consonant-e (silent “e”) Vowel pair (vowel team) Vocalic /r/ (r-controlled) Consonant-le Accent-where to put the accent in the word (use mirror to help—model and have student watch your mouth then his to imitate that mouth movement) Morphology—helps w/ decoding & vocabulary development & spelling Base word, affix, root, suffix, prefix *Teach specific spelling and grammatical conventions (e.g. –ing on end of verb meaning progressive action – helping verb tells past or present) Teach common Latin Roots & common Greek combining forms BIRSH, 2005

Choral/Echo Readings Teach Phrasing & Intonation Directly Study punctuation & grammar Practice with 3 or 4 word phrases Segmented sentences E.g. The black cat * chased the mouse Intonation & punctuation E.g. Bird fly. Birds fly? Birds fly! Intonation & stress E.g. You get the car. You get the car BIRSH, 2005

WORD CLASSIFICATION, CATEGORIZATION & USE: CLASSIFY singular noun plural noun CATEGORIZE animals pets furry soft start with “C” rhyme with “-at” USE subject object

Consultation OR Direct Services antonyms & synonyms multiple meaning words cognates & false cognates describing words & definitions example: “What means the same/opposite as…” “Tell me 2 meanings for the word bat” false cognate: “molestar”

Understanding parts of a sentence Subject-Verb- Object Increase sentence length Example: The cat ran away. The big, mean, scary black cat ran quickly through the trees to get away from him owner. tx vs instruction

83 CASE STUDIES Let’s discuss each case: What assessments or information would you need to obtain to create appropriate Tier III interventions?


85 MARIA Mom completed 9 years of school, but was illiterate
Dad completed 11 years of school, and was an alcoholic Family & neighbors speak Spanish; parents hope to return to Mexico soon. During testing Maria was anxious during English tests & relaxed during Spanish tests Class observation: teacher spoke quickly, went through information once & discouraged clarification questions

Oral Language 63 69 Story Recall 106 109 Picture Vocabulary 49 55 Understanding Directions 76 73 Oral Comprehension 86 Broad Reading 72 Letter-word Identification 82 Reading Fluency Passage Comprehension 67 WJ-III: NU Spanish scores very typical for a student of her educational hx—English is lower, but family very immersed in Mexican culture still. Not lot of academic language support in classroom to inEnglish Few sight words—could sound out unfamiliar words, weak vocab made it difficult to recognize words. Read haltingly, but when pictures were with text, she was much more confident and fluent. Difficulty recalling the words in reading comprehension VCI very typical for ELL student (explain adjusted %) BOOKS in L1 INappropriate Have teams discuss some possible interventions for Maria before go to next slide. WISC-IV: SPANISH SS U.S. % ADJUSTED % VCI 79 8 13 (83) PRI 88 21 27 (90) WMI 91 27 29 (91) PSI 37 (94)

87 What interventions would be appropriate for Maria?
NOW THAT YOU KNOW... What interventions would be appropriate for Maria?


89 LIZBET parents originally from Mexico; completed the primary grades.
language development was slow; mom concerned about her pronunciation of words. attended 1 year of Head Start; was shy at the beginning, but did well. Parents do not see any of the anxious behaviors at home; Lizbet completes her homework independently; stated she cannot read in English or Spanish

Oral Language 34 35 Story Recall 37 12 Picture Vocabulary 42 55 Understanding Directions 26 16 Oral Comprehension 56 63 Brief Reading 75 Letter-Word Identification 80 Passage Comprehension 69 Very inhibited during testing. Would not guess, rarely spoke. Knew letter sounds, but had difficulty putting the sounds together to form words (WJ-III often gives elevated scores for K & 1st grades) Diff w/ working memory & processing speed, which would affect ability to retain sounds in words WISC-IV: SPANISH SS U.S. % ADJUSTED % VCI 53 0.1 1.0 (63) PRI 82 12.0 29.0 (90) WMI 56 0.2 0.5 (59) PSI 70 2.0 8.0 (78)

91 What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet?
NOW THAT YOU KNOW... What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet? bil SLP do eval, but give object to Eng SLP to work on tx

92 SUMMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS… do benefit from the RTI process
are placed in classrooms that don’t provide appropriate ELL instruction require intensive & systematic instruction academic language & literacy skills can attain grade level word reading skills have greater difficulty attaining grade level reading comprehension & fluency skills. benefit from the same reading intervention as monolingual peers rate of progress may be different have Tier II & III interventions for longer time periods

93 WHAT SHOULD WE DO NOW? If there are different languages in the school
have select staff become experts on each language & be on the RTI team Use appropriate progress monitoring systems Diagnostic Assessment after Tier II Tier III interventionists need appropriate training in ELLs & literacy development Assign ELL students to teachers with training in ELL instruction Consult SLPs for vocabulary & language development activities how would person become an expert?

Professional Development Principals need to understand appropriate ELL instruction to ensure fidelity Teachers need training School-wide Professional advancement specific teachers develop an expertise Develop academic language instruction SIOP training for teacher and principals Training in WIDA English Language proficiency standards

Find ways to engage ELL parents Interpreters/translators Home activities Opportunities to volunteer Resources

96 TAKING STOCK What resources does your district currently have?
Staff, media, volunteers, technology, materials How can these be used to provide better instruction, assessments, and/or interventions for your ELL students? What does your district need? Resources in district that can help ELLs. How can they be tapped in new ways? What need? (Money is #1)


98 References: Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Birsh, J.R. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Colorin Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for English language learners. Retrieved from Colorín Colorado. (2007). Using cognates to develop comprehension in English. Retrieved from Delaware Department of Education. (2008). Annual Report of Delaware’s English Language Learners Staff & Programs. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Pearson Education, Inc. Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners: Research-based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Center on Instruction. Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., Shanahan, T., Linan-Thompson, S., Collins, P., & Scarcella, R. (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. U.S. Department of Education.

99 References: Hill, J. D. & Flynn, K. M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Klingner, J., Artiles, A., & Mendez Barletta, L. (2004). English language learners and learning disabilities: A critical review of the literature [Powerpoint]. Retrieved from Lundgren, C. & Robertson, K. (n.d.) Comprehension: Helping English language learners grasp the full picture. Retrieved from Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A Conceptual Framework. University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute. Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. WIDA Consortium (2007). English Language Proficiency Standards for English Language Learners in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 5. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Wright, Wayne E. (2008). Primary language support: Facilitating English language development and sheltered content instruction through effective use of students’ primary language(s) Message posted to

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