1 Module 3 Review and Module 4 Link to Previous RTI Modules Karen JonesEducation AssociateDelaware Department of Education
2 Review of HomeworkObserved school-based teams in action, interview staffUsed the Homework tool provided to evaluate the status of your teams.Discussion2
3 Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem AnalysisStrategy/ Intervention DesignStrategy/ Intervention ImplementationStrategy/ Intervention EvaluationFollow-up and Re-designGravois, IC Teams, 20083
4 Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem AnalysisStrategy/ Intervention DesignAcademic:Conducted under instructionally matched conditionsEffective instructional practices (modeling, repetition, corrective feedback, incentives for improvement)Plan for progress monitoringBehavior:Application of researched behavior principlesContingency management4Gravois, IC Teams, 2008
5 Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem AnalysisStrategy/ Intervention DesignStrategy/ Intervention ImplementationImplementation integrity must be considered5Gravois, IC Teams, 2008
6 Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem AnalysisStrategy/ Intervention DesignStrategy/ Intervention ImplementationStrategy/ Intervention EvaluationCharting and graphing of data (at least weekly)Continued comparison of data with baseline and goals6Gravois, IC Teams, 2008
7 Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem AnalysisStrategy/ Intervention DesignStrategy/ Intervention ImplementationStrategy/ Intervention EvaluationFollow-up and Re-design- Recognition that refinement and “tweaking” are necessary parts of effective problem solving7Gravois, IC Teams, 2008
8 Problem Solving Continues with Guiding Questions Is the core program sufficient?If the core program is not sufficient, why isn’t it?How will needs identified in the core be addressed?How will the effectiveness and efficiency of the core be monitored over time?Have improvements to the core been effective?Sharon Kurns, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
9 Problem Solving Continues with Guiding Questions For which students is the core program not sufficient and why?What specific strategic and intensive instruction/intervention is needed?Will the instruction/intervention be developed and selected through assessment, then matched with the function of target academic or behavior of each student?How will strategic and intensive instruction/intervention be delivered?How will effectiveness of strategic and intensive instruction/intervention be monitored?Sharon Kurns, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
10 Intervention Design What is our plan to address the problem? What is the desired outcome of the intervention?What are we going to do to achieve that outcome?How will we know if the plan is working?How will we know if the plan is being implemented as intended?What do we do if the plan works or does not work?Sharon Kurns, Kristi Upah & Sandy Nelson, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
11 Intervention Progress Monitoring Is the student making sufficient progress given the intervention? Are the supports in place to carry out the measurement strategy?How will data be displayed?Are data being collected frequently and regularly?Is the intervention creating the desired outcomes?What changes might need to be made to the intervention?Sharon Kurns and Kristi Upah, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
12 Implementation Integrity Is the intervention being implemented as planned? What are the essential elements of the intervention?What is the acceptable level of performance? Or how will we know if the intervention is being implemented with integrity?How will integrity data be collected?Is integrity data being collected as planned?How will the integrity data be analyzed?Are adjustments to implementation necessary? (Make Decision)Alecia Rahn and Sharon Kurns, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
13 Evaluation Decisions Has the intervention been successful? Should the intervention be evaluated?Is the student making progress at an expected rate?Is the student’s performance significantly discrepant from peers or expectations?What are the student’s instructional needs?What are the student’s ongoing instructional needs and what resources will be needed to meet them? (Make the decision.)Sharon Kurns, Randy Allision, Jeff Grimes, Kristi Upah, Heartland Area Education Agency 11
14 BibliographyHeartland Area Education Agency 11, Improving Children’s Educational Results Through Data-BasedDecision-Making. Johnston, Iowa
15 Module 4 Overview Juley Harper ELA Education Associate Delaware Department of Education
16 Because… RTI makes me feel like… Synectics-Establish a feeling with an object. William GordonBecause…
17 A mistake we often make in education… plan the curriculum materials very carefullyarrange all the instructional materialsopen the doors of the schooland then…find, to our dismay, that they’vesent us the wrong kids.ANON
18 An Intervention Is NOT Moving the student to another seat Referring the student to special educationAdjusting the level of questions on an assessmentTeaching the core curriculumRetaining the studentSimply observing the student in the classroomSuspending the studentAllowing the student to use a calculatorInformation based on research from Karen Burggraf, MEd and Arden Sotomayor, MEd, 2007
19 An Intervention ISA scientifically researched-based program used IN ADDITION to the core curriculum to help students with significant deficits reach proficiency.Information based on research from Karen Burggraf, MEd and Arden Sotomayor, MEd, 2007
20 Effective Interventions Why must we work at the school level to provide effective interventions?Children enter school with diverse instructional needs (e.g., talent, preparation for learning, oral language knowledge and abilities, motivation)Some children require instruction 4 or 5 times more intense than othersThe classroom teacher, alone, may not be able to provide sufficiently powerful instruction to meet the needs of all studentsBased on Research completed by the Florida Center for Reading Research, Elizabeth Crawford and Joseph Torgeson, 2006
21 Effective Intervention Characteristics They…increase the intensity of instructionincrease instructional timedecrease number of children in instructional groupimprove quality of instructionprovide many opportunities for pre-teaching, re-teaching, review, and supervised practiceare focused carefully on the most essential learning needs of the studentsprovide instruction that is both EXPLICIT and SYSTEMATICBased on Research completed by the Florida Center for Reading Research, Elizabeth Crawford and Joseph Torgeson, 2006
22 Common Traits of Successful Schools Strong LeadershipPositive Belief and Teacher DedicationData Utilization and AnalysisEffective SchedulingProfessional DevelopmentScientifically-Based Intervention ProgramsParental InvolvementBased on Research completed by the Florida Center for Reading Research, Elizabeth Crawford and Joseph Torgeson, 2006
24 Delaware Department of Education RTI InterventionsBehaviorBrian TouchetteDelaware Department of Education
25 Positive Behavior Support Intensive academic supportSchool based adult mentorsIntensive social skills trainingIndividualized function based behavior support plansParent training and collaborationMulti-agency collaboration (wrap around)Alternatives to suspension and expulsionIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable proceduresIntensive social skills training and supportSelf-management programsSchool-based adult mentors (check-in)Increased academic support & practiceAlternatives to school suspensionTargeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseEffective academic supportTeaching social skillsTeaching school-wide expectationsActive supervision in common areasPositive reinforcement for allFirm fair, corrective disciplineEffective Classroom managementSchool-wide InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactiveAll Students in the School
26 Interventions at Tier 1 If: >40% of students received 1+ODR >2.5 ODR per studentThen: Need to consider modifying universal supports to improve overall system (teach, precorrect, & positively reinforce expected behaviors)If: >60% of referrals come from classroom>50% of ODR come from <10% of classroomsThen: Need to consider enhancing universal or targeted classroom management practices (examine academic engagement & success; teacher, pre-correct for, & positively reinforce expected classroom behavior & routinesIf: >35% of referrals come from non-classroom settings>15% of students referred from non-classroom settingsThen: Need to consider enhancing universal behavior management practices (teach, precorrect for, & positively reinforce behavior & routines; increase active supervision in non-classroom settings (move, scan, interact)Sugai, 2004BrianHANDOUT
27 Functional Assessment Pathway MaintainingConsequenceTHE FUNCTION“Get something”“Get away fromSomething”ProblemBehaviorSetting EventTriggeringEvent orAntecedentSo, although you won’t be doing a detailed functional behavioral assessment at this point, you are going to at least consider how the behavior gets maintained for the child.Each of these steps in the pathway is reflected in the PI interview.
28 Example of Behavioral Pathway Setting Event Antecedent Behavior ConsequenceAlone for Given Math Profanity Gets out of30+ minutes or other task disruption completing workStart of summary:When given math worksheets & other assignments, Caesar does not do his work, he uses profanity & disrupts lessons, especially, when he has worked alone for 30 minutes without peer contact. His work does not get completed, & he avoids teachers requests.So, if your analysis of a problem was like this…the first part of your summary at Step 12 of the PI interview might look like this
29 Characteristics of quality interventions Seen as feasible and acceptableInvolve progress monitoring, fidelity checksBased on collaboration with familyBased on effective intervention principles (evidence-based)Address prevention, teaching, and consequencesOne more issue to consider in selecting interventions for a particular student: be sure to address a broad context, not just think about consequences.In some cases, the intervention will be within the classroom, while in other cases the teacher and consultant will work together to link the student with extra-classroom resources. The consultant can assist in progress monitoring.
30 Characteristics of Quality Interventions PreventiveMake the behavior irrelevant. Change the environment so it’s not necessaryTeaching – make the behavior inefficientTeach a replacement skill that works betterFunction/ConsequenceMake the behavior ineffective. Remove reinforcement of the problem behavior. Maximize reinforcement of the replacement behaviorAcademic ConsiderationsAll things considered, it is always easier to prevent than correct problems.Relationships are preventative as are good classroom management strategies. You may need to look at what is working for others in the class that might need to be adjusted for this particular kid (e.g., most kids may be handling transitions well, but the target kid really struggles. What supports can be added to transition times?).Make sure the kid has the tools needed to succeed (emotion regulation, socially appropriate means for accessing attention).Only after these are addressed should you look at consequent strategies.
31 Targeted Interventions: Some examples Skill BuildingAcademicOrganizationalSocialAnger managementProblem-solving and conflict resolutionCoping strategiesSupport/relationship BuildingCheck In programsMentoring (with adults or peers)Peer tutoring (with target student as tutor)Cooperative learning activitiesBreakfast/lunch clubsStudent leadership opportunitiesFor convenience, we’ve placed interventions into two categories.The consultant and teacher or parent may also make other changes to the student’s routine to try and prevent the problem, etc.When skill building is needed, these are some likely areas where teaching may need to occur (note: we’re not talking about academics today)Social skills: second step; skillstreaming; second stepAnger management: Lochman’s programProblem-solving conflict resolution: solution oriented counseling; others? I Can Problem SolveCoping strategies: anxiety management; Coping CatMany kids who don’t respond to the schoolwide program need additional interpersonal support. They need to feel connected at school. Positive relationships provide students with a reason to want to do better.Note that these relationship building activities may occur at the same time as skill building activities.
33 Universal Screening Workshop – April 23rd Paid Commercial AdvertisementUniversal Screening Workshop – April 23rdThis training is designed to help you IDENTIFY students who may need additional mental health/behavioral intervention. It is not designed to help you provide these services.Ask teams the following questions:Do you believe that your SW system is in place and functioning well (that is, fewer than 20% of kids in the upper tiers & data are being used effectively to modify the SW program)If so, do you feel you have a good problem solving structure in place when kids are identified as having social emotional and behavior problems?If so, do you feel there are mental health services available either in school or in your local community?If so, you may be ready to consider how you are identifying kids in need and whether you are reaching them as quickly and efficiently as possible…this training is for you.Summer Training for PBS on all levels of interventions –
34 Recognition and Response RTI and Early Childhood Jim Lesko, Ed.DDelaware Department of Education
36 Principals for Developing the Response in Early Childhood Merges the best aspects of early childhood general and special educationCombines the standard treatment protocol and problem-solving process from RTIIncludes content based on the best predictors of language and literacy skills in pre-kIncludes curricula and instructional approaches for pre-k that are validated through research/practiceUses methods for scaffolding learning that are based on evidenceIncludes a balance of explicit and embedded approachesIncludes guidelines for implementation
37 Culturally and linguistically diverse population Teachers on a continuum of learning
43 References and Sites References Listing of some important web sites: Buysee, V., & Winton, P., & Zimmerman, T. (2007). RTI goes to pre-k: An early intervening system called recognition and response. Early Developments, 11, 6-10.Coleman, M.R., Buysee, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Recognition and response: An early intervening system for young children at-risk for learning disabilities. Full report. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, FPG Child Development InstituteColeman, M. R., Buysse, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Establishing the evidence base for an emerging early childhood practice: Recognition and response. In V. Buysse, & P. Wesley. (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp ). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.Listing of some important web sites:
44 Mathematics Diana Roscoe Delaware Department of Education And Jamila Riser, Math CoalitionVal Maxwell and Jan Parsons, University of DelawareEric Shane, Caesar Rodney School District
45 Both are a part of Response to Intervention Math InterventionsAn intervention can be thought of as a plan of action on behalf of students who are struggling or who are being considered for acceleration.The term intervention usually indicates that the students’ difficulties or particular strengths are in the early stages, when they can be identified and possibly addressed before they become a concern.In contrast, remediation is often applied to actions taken to reverse established patterns of achievement by students who are already struggling or failing and need intensive and long-term assistance. (NCTM)Both are a part of Response to Intervention
46 ResourcesHow do we as a teacher, school, district, state, develop math intervention strategies when even the experts haven’t developed a multitude of effective prescriptive intervention strategies?
48 Effective Intervention Is a Problem-Solving Process We invite you to participate in the following two problem-solving strategies that help teachers to build a library of interventionsWhole class – pedagogical interventionIndividualized – item/content specific intervention
50 Develop Strategies Based on Your Question Identify a ProblemFormulate a QuestionDevelop Strategies Based on Your QuestionDevelop a Plan for Data CollectionNext StepsGather and Analyze the DataReflect on the ResultsPlan for the Next Action
51 My students perform well during classroom instruction but seem to fall apart on exams such as the DSTP or NAEP. They behave as if they have never seen a problem with this mathematical content and many of them even leave answers blank.Small Group Activity- Use the Intervention Research Process of Inquiry to:Formulate a questionDevelop Strategies based on the questionDevelop a plan for data collection
52 Fifth GradeSturdy paper plates come in packages of 8. How many packages of plates should the Yum Yum Deli supply so that each of the 527 people can have one plate?Assessment purpose for this item:Know what to do with the remainder.Compute CorrectlyRecognize that division is needed to solve this problem.
53 Sorting Activity Sort the papers A through M into three piles. Need immediate interventionOkay for NowNo intervention neededRecord your notes regarding anything you see that may be getting in the way of successfully completing the problem (Sorting Activity Handout).Share your notes and carry out a group discussion regarding possible intervention strategies with one note taker in the group (Intervention Worksheet Handout).Share one intervention with the entire room.
54 Develop Strategies Based on Your Question Identify a ProblemFormulate a QuestionDevelop Strategies Based on Your QuestionDevelop a Plan for Data CollectionNext StepsGather and Analyze the DataReflect on the ResultsPlan for the Next Action
55 The core purpose of professional development should be the continuous improvement of professional practice.Thomas R. Corcoran, 1998
56 Administrators Have a Key Role Make improving instructional practice and shared accountability for student achievement high priorities.Recognize, value, and promote research-based effective instructional strategies and differentiated interventions.Expect all faculty to engage in research-based effective instructional strategies and differentiated interventions.Create learning communities that support teachers as they work to transform/improve instructional practice and develop interventions.Provide time and guidance for collegial work.
57 School-Based Teacher Leaders Role Create a safe environment for others to share their professional practicesTake the lead in sharing your professional practice and develop an intervention.Maintain a stance of inquiry—”I wonder . . .”Listen
58 Teachers Have a RoleActively contribute to the creation of a safe environment for others to share their professional practicesParticipate in the sharing of professional practice and be willing to implement and experiment with a variety of proposed interventionsRecord and share feedback on your implementation of interventionsMaintain a stance of inquiry—“I wonder . . .“Listen
59 The key to long-term improvement [in teaching] is to figure out how to generate, accumulate, and share professional knowledge.The Teaching Gap
61 Choosing and Using Reading Interventions Sharon Walpole, Ph.D.University of Delaware
62 Overview Introduce the Cognitive Model of Reading Assessment Define characteristics of interventions that workCompare and contrast intervention strategies and intervention programsProvide access to public program reviewsExamine a comprehensive content-analysis system for coordinating choices for your district or school
64 What is comprehension?Comprehension is understanding what is heard or read.Comprehension of any text involves creation of an integrated and coherent representation of the text.Comprehension may or may not lead to memory for text or text ideas.64
65 RAND’s heuristic for thinking about reading comprehension 65
66 Stage models of reading ComprehensionOral LanguageFluencyAlphabetic PrinciplePhonemic AwarenessWhen children are acquiring literacy – developing the skills necessary for reading comprehension – they tend to move through stages in which their focus is very different. All along, during each stage, they are developing oral language skills. Although our goal is increased comprehension, at times we must address lower-level skills.66
67 This text is currently being revised; the Cognitive Model is part of the revision. 67
68 Knowledge of Strategies The Cognitive ModelPhonologicalAwarenessDecoding andSight WordKnowledgeFluencyinContextPrintConceptsAutomaticWordRecognitionVocabularyKnowledgeBackgroundKnowledgeLanguageComprehensionReadingComprehensionKnowledge ofText and SentenceStructuresStrategicKnowledgeGeneral Purposesfor ReadingSpecific Purposesfor ReadingKnowledge of Strategiesfor Reading68
69 Assessment-Driven Decisions Give screening test in a given area(and in more basic areas if need be)If screening identifies a problem area, give a diagnostic test to determine skill needsIdentify programs or strategies that specifically address the skill needsGive progress monitoring tests periodically to determine impact of targeted instruction69
70 The concept of three tiers of instruction The 3-tier model (University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency, 2005) is a general framework — and just a framework — for explaining how any research-based program can be executed in a school.70
71 Tier I: Core Grade-Level Reading Instruction 1. A core reading program grounded in scientifically based reading research 2. Benchmark testing of all students to determine instructional needs at least three times per year (fall, winter, and spring) 3. Ongoing professional development to provide teachers with the necessary tools to ensure every student receives quality reading instruction71
72 Tier II: Supplemental Instruction For some students, core grade-level reading instruction is not enough. Tier II is designed to meet the needs of these students by providing them with additional small-group reading instruction daily.72
73 Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention A small percentage of students require more support in acquiring vital reading skills than Tier II instruction can provide. For these students, Tier III provides instruction that is more explicit, more intensive, and specifically designed to meet their individual needs.73
74 A Stairway to Proficiency Vocabulary & ComprehensionFluency and ComprehensionWord Recognition and FluencyPA and Word Recognition74
75 Automatic Word Recognition: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Phonological Awareness and Print AwarenessDecoding and Sight Word KnowledgeOral Reading Fluency
76 Language Comprehension: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Vocabulary KnowledgeBackground KnowledgeText structure knowledgeSentence structure knowledge
77 Strategic Knowledge: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Reading strategiesSpecific purposes for readingGeneral purposes for reading
78 Comprehensive Early Interventions A recent review of extensive interventions (those with at least 100 sessions) compared 12 studies.The report provides descriptions, effect sizes, and cost estimates.
79 For temporary, targeted intervention efforts, avoid “comprehensive” solutions in favor of specialized ones.
80 focus is, how can I address it? Once I know what myfocus is, how can I address it?80
81 Effective interventions integrate three essential components: Explicit, systematic contentIntensive instructional designReflexive instructional deliveryMeyers, S. D. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of a kindergarten intervention program. Unpublished executive position paper, University of Delaware.
82 Explicit Content: Lesson Focus Phonemic AwarenessFind the middle sounds in words.Word RecognitionLearn a series of new letter sounds.Learn new consonant or vowel patterns.Read and spell words that you see all of the time.FluencyWork with words that you must read quickly.Read text repeatedly to increase rate.
83 Explicit Content: Teacher Modeling Phonemic AwarenessTeachers use pictures, manipulatives, and hand signals to direct attentionWord RecognitionTeachers sound and blend words using standardized, repetitive proceduresFluencyTeachers read to students or use choral or echo procedures to model fluent reading
84 Systematic Content Across lessons Words and texts are organized from easiest to hardest over a sequence of lessonsWithin lessonsThe teacher models, works with the students, and then has them work independentlyThere are planned repetitions of old items and opportunities to demonstrate and assess mastery
85 Intensive Instructional Designs GroupingSmaller groups are more intensive; interventions usually require homogeneous groupsTimeTime on task, actually reading or writing or responding, is maximized; instruction is well organizedOpportunityStudents respond chorally or in every pupil response format to maximize individual chances; teacher uses specific error correction procedures
86 Reflexive Instructional Designs Entry PointsData are used to decide where students should begin a lesson sequenceProgress MonitoringThere are procedures to monitor whether students are learning the specific items taught in the interventionExit PointsThere is a definite, specific goal for mastery of the skill that is targeted in the intervention
87 Is it possible to do all this without commercial programs? 87
88 Nearly all vendors claim that their programs are scientifically based Scientifically-based programsScientifically-based strategiesThe entire program, tested with random assignment and implemented with fidelity, yielded better outcomes compared with a control groupThe specific strategy, tested with random assignment and implemented with fidelity, yielded better outcomes compared with a control groupActually, very few programs meet these stringent tests; rather, most programs combine a series of scientifically based strategies
89 Scientifically-based programs BenefitsCostsThe scope and sequence is already systematicThere are scripts to keep instruction explicitAfter initial training, less planning time is neededTime and focus may be inconsistent with your needsThe programs may be expensiveThere may be no way to allow multiple entry points
90 Scientifically-based strategies BenefitsCostsThe instructional strategy is very specific to address one or two components of readingThe skill can be measured repeatedly to test student responseStrategies are published in research journals; you have to find themMore planning time is needed to assemble materialsYou may not have adequate texts
91 What we have to avoid is continuing ineffective current practices What we have to avoid is continuing ineffective current practices. Serving our children requires that we adopt scientifically-based strategies and/or programs and that we monitor their effectiveness for each child.
94 Descriptions of Programs The Florida Center for Reading Research produces narrative descriptions of a variety of commercial programs.The descriptions include any available research evidence.fcrr.org
99 How could you inventory the strengths and weaknesses of your current programs? 99
100 Procedures for Reviewing Programs The Oregon Reading First Center used to review and rate programs; those ratings have been deleted from the website and only the rating guides are available.
101 The Oregon procedure includes items for analysis for K-3 intervention programs that could be very helpful to you.
102 Professional Development Grouping structureWhole groupSmall group1-on-1Professional DevelopmentTotal number of hoursTime recommendationsMinutes per dayDays per weekNumber of sessionsMaterialsProvidedCreated by teacherInterventionist QualificationsCertified teacherParaprofessionalOtherTotal Cost Estimate
103 Instructional Design and Emphasis Introduces a manageable amount of information and objectives within a lesson.Provides sufficient emphasis on high-priority skills and strategiesProvides sufficient modeled examples prior to learner practice.Includes sufficient opportunities for student responses.
104 Instructional Design and Emphasis Structures adequate practice and review for mastery of new skill/strategyProvides specific guidance for corrective feedback.Includes specific recommendation or guidance for reteaching.
105 Instructional Grouping Includes a placement test or process that allows students to start at different entry points in the materials depending on student performance.Provides recommendations on group size and range of performance within groups.Recommends and accommodates flexible groupings to maximize student learning.
106 Instructional Assessment Allows teachers to determine the effectiveness of instruction by conducting frequent and ongoing assessment checkpoints on critical skills.Includes assessment items for each major reading skill/strategy that can be used to determine what students need to learn and how much they have learned.
107 Instructional Assessment Provides guidance to teachers on how to use assessment information to plan and differentiate instruction.Monitors student progress at the end of each unit of instruction.
108 How could you critically evaluate the efficacy of your current programs? 108
109 Automatic Word Recognition: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Phonological Awareness and Print AwarenessDecoding and Sight Word KnowledgeOral Reading Fluency
110 Language Comprehension: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Vocabulary KnowledgeBackground KnowledgeText structure knowledgeSentence structure knowledge
111 Strategic Knowledge: Programs and Strategies Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Reading strategiesSpecific purposes for readingGeneral purposes for reading
112 Procedures for Reviewing Programs The most recent procedure for program review is available from fcrr.org. It allows you to consider all programs, K-6, at once.
113 Review this content analysis procedure Review this content analysis procedure. What would you have to do to use this procedure to consider new programs and/or strategies?
114 If I have strategies and/or programs, how might I deliver them? 114
115 This public-access document provides reasonable suggestions for elementary school intervention design.
116 Scheduling Options Strongest Design Moderate Weakest Design Struggling students receive differentiated instruction from the classroom teacher PLUS additional intervention outside the reading block.ModerateOther adults push in to the classroom to provide intervention to struggling students while other students receive differentiated instruction.Weakest DesignClassroom teacher provides instruction while other children engage in reading practice.
118 Matching programs and strategies with personnel Smaller range of adults(e.g., certified specialists)Highly scriptedWider range of adults(e.g., paraprofessionals)Highly responsive118
119 Matching programs and strategies with personnel Smaller range of adults(e.g., certified specialists)Highly scriptedWider range of adults(e.g., paraprofessionals)Highly responsive119
120 Next Steps Inventory your current resources. Locate potential new resources.Center on Instruction Extensive Interventions?FCRR interventions?What Works Clearinghouse?Use FCRR guide to analyze resources and understand their potential fit.Consider your resources (time, personnel, and budget).
127 The “Mindset” “Village People” Relationships with colleagues with studentswith parentsThe view and value of Data
128 The Data Dilemma The “More the Merrier” trap “Diagnosticians” Common AssessmentsNWEA MapDSTPDIBELSWalpole InventorySuccessMaker dataMarking Period Grade AnalysesS.T.A.R.
129 956322 M 2 3 206 203 210 7 2 ABOVE 211 217 B Page-Aaron,D Hakim, S Student IDGenderRacePY DSTP ReadingNWEA Spring 2007NWEA Fall 2007NWEA Winter 2008NWEA Difference from FallDistance from PL3 WinterPY DSTP MathEnglish/LAEnglish TeacherMathMath TeacherTotal Days AbsentTotal Days Late956322M2320620321072 ABOVE211217BPage-Aaron,DHakim, S9243192132241316 ABOVE21921814 ABOVEAWhitaker, KCGilbert, N4433272051962071120420956Davis,S.Houser, S4009725F212810 ABOVE074095215-6227216-111 ABOVEArasim, S448821183188199918422522DCocoWilliams07008622214 ABOVE208058266195173-2235
130 From Pointing Fingers to Holding Hands From “One is the Loneliest Number” to “We’re All in This Together”What is togetherness?Support from:State DistrictSchool TeacherStudent FamilyCommunityStudent/Parent/Teacher ConferencesGoal setting with NWEA MAP dataStudents tracking their own dataProgress/goal attainment feedback to parents
131 TIME and Collaboration Mission ImpossibleFinding blocks of 30 minutes w/o missing core contentFinding staff available during those blocks to provide 1:5 interventionFinding time to identify/discuss individual “real time” student needFinding time to plan and coordinate intervention with/between teachers
132 Traditional Collaborative Planning Session “You know, I noticed the same thing with Johnny. The literal comprehension, pass the pickles, doesn’t seem, no –the sweet pickles, to give him, no, I’ll pass on the onions, got choir practice tonight – you know, “Love they neighbor!”, to be as much, how do you eat those hot peppers like that, do you have an asbestos stomach …Traditional Collaborative Planning Session
133 TIME and Collaboration Mission Accomplished1. “Power Half Hour”Mandatory SSRDuty free scheduling maximizes available staffSmall group interventionModel SSR while teachers collaboratively plan interventions“Terrific Tuesdays”90 minute whole team collaboration2 – 45 minute intervention / enrichment periodsBased on “drilled down” need