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Balance of Literary and Informational Text

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1 Balance of Literary and Informational Text
Module 3 K-2 Reading Cadre

2 Agenda Linking Content and Disciplinary Literacy to K-5 Informational Text The Shifts Across the Content Areas Hands-on Activities with the Shifts Defining Informational Text Elementary Instructional Implications

3 Videos Elementary Shift 1: PK-5 Balancing Informational Text and Literature Video is 10 minutes long…use portion that applies to your audience

4 Literacy Development Disciplinary Literacy Intermediate Literacy
(content specific) Intermediate Literacy (cognitive endurance, monitoring comprehension, complex text, author’s purpose) Basic Literacy (decoding, print and literacy conventions) Basic: decoding skills, print and literacy conventions, recognition of high frequency words Intermediate: developing cognitive endurance, monitoring comprehension, using fix-up strategies. Access to more complex text organization, use author’s purpose as a tool for critical response. Disciplinary: increasingly disciplinary and technical nature of literacy tasks. Content specific. Shanahan and Shanahan (2008)

5 Publishers’ Criteria K-2
The most notable shifts in the standards when compared to state standards include explicit preparation to read informational text and a requirement that students’ reading material be substantive and linked in meaningful ways to content area learning. (p. 1) The standards call for elementary curriculum materials to be recalibrated to reflect a mix of 50 percent literary and 50 percent informational text, including reading in ELA, science, social studies, and the arts. (p. 6) The Publisher’s Criteria identifies a most notable shift…explicit preparation for students to read informational text.

6 Publishers’ Criteria 3-12
In grades 3–5, literacy programs shift the balance of texts and instructional time to include equal measures of literary and informational texts. (p. 5)

for College and Career Readiness 10 Anchor Standards for College and Career Readiness 6 Anchor Standards for CCR 6 Anchor Standards for CCR ELA Standards K-12 Literacy Standards 6-12 Found-ational Skills ELA Standards K-12 Literacy Standards 6-12 ELA Standards K-12 ELA Standards K-12 1 2 3 4 5 Literary Text Inform Text Hist. / S.S. Sci. / Tech Subj. 1 K 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 → → → → → → K 1 K 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 11-12 K K K → → → → → → → → → → → 1 2 3 4 5 1 → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → 1 2 → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → 2 3 Roadmap from Kansas. Shows the ELA strands beginning with the anchor standards for each strand. Talk at your table groups … what conclusions can you draw from this? Look at the Reading section first. See how the content standards are integrated into the informational text. However in 6-12 the content standards are broken out. 3 → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → 4 4 → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → 5 5 → → → → → → → → → → → 6 6 9-10 11-12 6 7 9-10 11-12 6-8 6-8 7 9-10 11-12 6-8 7 8 8 8 9-10 9-10 9-10 11-12 11-12 11-12 11-12

8 College & Career Anchor Standards for Reading
Big Ideas 1-Evidence 2-Central Ideas 3-Interaction Getting deep into the text 4-Vocabulary 5-Text Structure 6-Point of View/Purpose Author’s choices about the text 7-Multimedia 8-Argument (Evaluating Argument) 9-Mutliple Texts Thinking across texts 10-Range and Complexity LOTS of in-school reading The anchor standards are our end-goal for education. These are the big ideas. We need to keep sight of these big ideas.

9 College & Career Anchor Standards for Writing
Big Ideas 1-Write Arguments 2-Write to Explain/Inform 3-Write narratives Types of Writing 4-Write with Coherence 5-Plan, Revise, Rewrite 6-Use Technology Writing Process 7-Short and Sustained Research 8-Use Multiple Sources 9-Use Text Evidence Research 10-Range of Writing LOTS of In-school Writing The anchor standards are our end-goal for education. These are the big ideas. We need to keep sight of these big ideas.

10 College & Career Anchor Standards for Speaking & Listening
Big Ideas 1-Range of Conversations 2-Integrate and Evaluate 3-Evaluate Speaker’s Point of View Comprehension and collaboration (LOTS of in-school discussions) 4-Present Information Clearly, Know your Audience 5-Use Digital Media 6-Adapts Speech to Context Presentation of knowledge and ideas The anchor standards are our end-goal for education. These are the big ideas. We need to keep sight of these big ideas.

11 College & Career Anchor Standards for Language
Big Ideas Grammar and Usage when Writing or Speaking. Capitalization, Punctuation, and Spelling when Writing. Conventions of Standard English How Language Functions in Different Contexts, to Make Effective Choices for Meaning or Style. Knowledge of Language Using Context Clues, Word Parts and Reference Materials. Figurative Language, Word Relationships, Nuances in Word Meaning. Acquiring and Using Tier II and III Words; Demonstrating Independent Vocabulary Acquiring Skills. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use The anchor standards are our end-goal for education. These are the big ideas. We need to keep sight of these big ideas.

12 3 Shifts 6 Shifts 1. Building Knowledge through Content-rich Literary Non-fiction and Informational Texts. PK-5, Balance of Informational and Literary Text 6-12, Building Knowledge in the Disciplines 2. Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text. Text-based answers Writing to/from sources 3. Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary. Staircase of complexity Academic vocabulary Bolded text is the focus of this module.

13 Instructional Shifts Assessment Shifts
PK-5, Balancing Informational and Literary Texts A Balance of Authentic Informational and Literary Texts. 6-12, Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Knowledge-based Questions about Discipline-specific, Informational Text. Staircase of Complexity Higher level of text complexity appropriate to grade level Text-Based Answers Evidence from text, including paired passages, to make an argument, inform or explain; short, focused research. Writing From Sources Academic Vocabulary Tier Two words which can be discerned from the text. Adapted from engageNY Assessments need to change for K-2 to prepare for the testing they will need to take later.

14 Shift #1: PK-5, Balance of Informational and Literary Text
Rationale: Elementary students typically encounter curriculum that is heavily influenced by literary text. Implications for Instruction: Elementary students need a balance (50/50); they need to learn the structures of both literary and informational text to deepen comprehension. This is the shift we will be addressing in this module.

15 A Balance of Informational Text K-5
Literary Text Science Biographies Social Studies History Arts Directions Technical Text Short Stories Myths Legends Poetry Drama One of the most significant instructional impacts of the CCSS is the increase in the quantity of literacy materials and amount of instructional time devoted to informational text, so that it equals the time and weight given to literature. Recent studies have shown that as little as 7-15% of elementary reading instructional time is devoted to informational text. The CCSS calls for a balance of literature and informational text at every grade level, K-5. in other words, 50% of reading instruction will be devoted to supporting students at every grade level to become proficient at reading increasingly complex, high quality informational text.

16 NAEP Grade Literary Text Informational Text 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%
The Standards follow NAEP’s lead in balancing the reading of literary and informational texts, including texts in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Grade Literary Text Informational Text 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70% The National Assessment of Educational Progress reading test, given every two years uses a balance of literary and informational text at the elementary level. The CCSS follows NAEP’s lead in calling for 50% of the texts students read to be informational starting from the very beginning in kindergarten.

17 *The percentages on the table reflect the sum of student reading, not just reading in ELA settings. Teachers of senior English classes, for example, are not required to devote 70 percent of reading to informational texts. Rather, 70 percent of student reading across the grade should be informational. Reminder

18 Shift #2: 6-12, Building Knowledge in the Disciplines
Rationale: Literacy needs to be owned by all. Implications for Instruction: Students need an opportunity to read a variety of discipline-specific texts. Literary Nonfiction and Informational Text for ELA Discipline-specific texts across other content areas

19 Shift #3: Staircase of Complexity
Rationale: All students need to read a range of texts; they need appropriate scaffolding to be able to read closely and analyze challenging text. Implications for Instruction: Choose short and extended texts that represent a range. Teach students how to choose books (independent, challenging, just right). Model how to read closely and analyze text. Let students productively struggle. An analysis of schoolbooks found that text difficulty has been significantly reduced from texts published in 1919 to those published in 1991 (Adams, 2010–2011; Hayes Wolfer, & Wolfe, 1996).

20 Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges
Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR Expectations K – 1 N/A * 2 – 3 450 – 725 450 – 790 4 – 5 645 – 845 770 – 980 6 – 8 860 – 1010 955 – 1155 9 – 10 960 – 1115 1080 – 1305 11 – CCR 1070 – 1220 *K-1 lexiles were added by Kansas (Matt Copeland)

21 Shift #4: Text-Based Answers
Rationale: Students need to discuss/ answer text-dependent questions – not text-inspired or “cookie cutter.” Implications for Instruction: Teachers need to ask text-based questions and teach students how to refer back to the text to gather evidence. Encourage students to use text-dependent questions during discussions.

22 Examples Text-inspired: Text-dependent: Cookie cutter:
In _________, Charlotte encountered an altercation with her best friend. Tell about a time that you have had an altercation with a friend. Text-dependent: In __________, what caused Charlotte’s mood to change? What effect did this have on Charlotte’s day? Use evidence from the text to support your answer. Cookie cutter: Who is the main character of the story?

23 Shift #5: Writing From Sources
Rationale: Students need to learn how to gather evidence to marshal an argument, using multiple sources. Implications for Instruction: Students need to do purposeful writing that requires text evidence. Short, focused research, using multiple texts, needs to be a staple in a unit. We don’t learn to read well by being taught reading skills. We learn to read well by reading a lot for meaning: to analyze or support arguments, to arrive at our own opinions as we make inferences or attempt to solve problems. (Schmoker, 2011) p. 107

24 We don’t learn to read well by being taught reading skills
We don’t learn to read well by being taught reading skills. We learn to read well by reading a lot for meaning: to analyze or support arguments, to arrive at our own opinions as we make inferences or attempt to solve problems. (Schmoker, 2011) p. 107

25 Shift #6: Academic Vocabulary
Rationale: Teachers need to spend more time on academic vocabulary (Tier 2). Implications for Instruction: Tier 2 vocabulary (or academic vocabulary) exposes students to multi-meaning words that transcend all content areas. Tier 3 vocabulary is domain or discipline-specific and should be encountered in the content-area classroom in an authentic context.

26 What is Informational Text?
Literary Non-fiction Biographies and autobiographies Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Books about history, social studies, science, and the arts Technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps Digital Sources on a Range of Topics The term literary may be a bit confusing. For the purposes of the Standards, literature is broadly defined to include stories (including myths, legends, folk tales) drama and poetry. Biography, autobiography, speeches, etc. – commonly referred to as literary nonfiction – are included in informational text. Students typically are more familiar with the narrative structure found in stories of various types and have difficulty with the text structures found in most informational text. So it is important that the informational text selections chosen for students have a structure other than the more familiar narrative problem solution structure. Equally important is that students receive explicit instruction and support in understanding these other text structures and using that knowledge to help them comprehend the text itself. Standard 5 deals specifically with text features at K-3 and text structure at 4-5

27 What is Informational Text?
Emphasis is on Text Structure other than Narrative Cause and effect Chronological/sequential Compare/contrast Enumeration and description Opinion and supporting arguments

28 Activity: Progression of Difficulty
Read through the K-5 Reading Informational Text Standards (#1-10). Remember that each “step up” in task difficulty is matched by a “step up” in text complexity. Identify the “step up” in task difficulty at each grade K-5 for Standard 9. Handout needed With a partner examine Standard 9 and identify how the tasks become more difficult at each grade.

29 Standard 9 Progression of Difficulty
1st – omitted “With prompting and support” 2nd – added “most important” points 3rd – added “and key details” 4th – added “Integrate” … “in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably” 5th – added “several” texts These are the answers to the previous activity.

30 What’s New At Your Grade Level?
Identify grade-specific standards that are new at your grade or represent a new emphasis in classroom instruction at your grade. Think about the instructional strategies and approaches that you will apply to these standards. Participants need a copy of CCSS. Partner activity.

31 Reading to Learn Explicit comprehension instruction should not be delayed until students are able to read grade-level text independently. Read-alouds and the use of text-based discussions are opportunities to help students learn from complex informational text, especially when students are just learning to read or if students struggle to read informational text independently. (Beck & McKeown, 2001) The belief that children should first learn to read in K-3 and later, at about 4th grade “read to learn” is NOT supported by research.

32 Students Who Struggle Students who Struggle with Reading can Successfully Handle Informational Text when Instruction Includes: Explicit teaching of text structure Graphic organizers The use of teacher modeling and guided feedback

33 Young Children’s Preference
When discussion followed the read-aloud, students seemed to prefer informational text. When no discussion followed the read-aloud, the students preferred narrative text. Research suggests that students are more likely to select informational text for independent reading if their teacher used the informational text in a read-aloud. (Dreher & Dromsky, 2000; Duke, Bennett-Armistead, & Roberts, 2003) Young children’s reading preferences are closely connected to the classroom context and how they have experienced informational texts. No research evidence supports the notion that children don’t like informational text. Rather, it is important to put student text preference within the context of the classroom instructional activities. In other words, HOW texts are used in the classroom is more centrally related to how children form attitudes about texts.

34 Classroom Snapshot: You Would See
Time spent with informational text Books on a wide variety of topics that interest elementary children Children engaged and reading these books Graphic organizers Explicit comprehension strategy instruction If a classroom is supporting all students in attaining the Reading Informational Text Standards what would it look like?

35 Classroom Snapshot: You Would Hear
Teacher and student initiated questions about the text Teacher facilitated read-alouds and text-based discussions Students discussing and applying comprehension strategies Students retelling what they learned from an informational text with a partner Teachers and students using content language and text-related academic language If a classroom is supporting al students in attaining the Reading Informational Text Standards what would it sound like?

36 Instructional Implications Elementary
Provide students with equal exposure of informational and literary texts in the elementary grades (across disciplines). Develop good readers who know, control, and use a range of strategies as they read informational text. Explicitly teach reading comprehension skills in a similar manner across informational text and literature. Build background knowledge to increase reading skills.

37 Informational Picture Books
Exemplar texts from Appendix A (CCSS)

38 Explicitly teach strategies for informational texts
Text Features Content Features Graphs Headings Title pages Subheadings Illustrations Diagrams Labels Charts Maps Reading to meet the demands of science, history, math Information rich Linked to author’s purpose Content-specific verbs Structural vocabulary Best Practices for teaching informational text strategies

39 Understand continuous text
Develop Good Readers who Know, Control, and Use a Range of Strategies as They Read Informational Text Decode Fluency and accuracy Vocabulary Understand continuous text Sentence level Within, between, and across paragraphs Whole text and across a range of text Understand Non-continuous text Photographs and captions Graphs and tables Diagrams As elementary teachers we need to develop basic good reader strategies that apply to all text.

40 Link to prior knowledge Make inferences Ask and answer questions
Explicitly Teach Reading Comprehension Skills in a Similar Manner Across Informational Text and Literature Link to prior knowledge Make inferences Ask and answer questions Vocabulary strategies Talk aloud and think aloud by teachers and students Visualization Explicitly teach reading comprehension skills in a similar manner across informational text and literature.

41 Build Background Knowledge to Increase Reading Skills
Link to personal and cultural experiences. From what I know about the prior. knowledge of my students. What is the best way to introduce the ideas and possible challenges in this text? What is the best instructional teaching approach? What will I need to monitor as reading progresses? Build background knowledge to increase reading skills.

42 Interactive Non-fiction Read Aloud
Interactive Read Aloud: Non-fiction Identifying Features of Non-fiction Books The first video is intended for second grade. It is a 14 minute video demonstrating an interactive read aloud. The second video is for grades K-1. The facilitator may choose whichever video may target their audience.

43 Reflection Time Turn to a partner and recall a few details from the session as you discuss the following questions. What will be the percentages of informational and literary text in your grade? What are some text structures students may encounter in informational texts? What is one new standard or new in emphasis at your grade that will impact your instruction? What is one strategy or approach that supports learning to read informational text?

44 Resources DOE CCSS Website
Literacy Concept Organizers for Social Studies and Science Literacy Standards by Content Areas Literacy Design Collaborative The Teaching Channel Guide to the Shifts HQPD Modules

45 Module Extensions Ways to identify literacy demands of the content area Evidence of the Shifts in Practice List of discipline-specific genres (what do scientists read…) List of anchor texts (examples of the above) Examples of reading like, “a historian”, “scientist”, “mathematician”, etc. Using discipline-specific text as models for writing Research that supports literacy in this discipline Examples of some of the literacy standards

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