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Motivation and Fluency Module Five Prepared by the Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Fluency Module Five Prepared by the Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001."— Presentation transcript:


2 Motivation and Fluency Module Five Prepared by the Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

3 Motivation & Fluency Understand how to improve student motivation Understand the importance of fluency when learning to read Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

4 Motivation is crucial to reading because motivation is what activates behavior. Motivation Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

5 Goal Orientations The reason we do what we do : Learning - Seek to improve their skills and accept new challenges in activities such as reading (Ames, 1992; Ames & Archer, 1998). Performance (ego) - Attempt to outperform others and maximize favorable evaluations of their ability (Thorkildsen & Nicholls, 1998) Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

6 Fosters long-term engagement and learning. Engaged readers are likely to have a learning orientation toward reading, seeking to improve their knowledge and conceptual understanding as they read. Learning Goal Orientation Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

7 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

8 Intrinsic Motivation Enjoyment of reading for its own sake. Deci, 1992. Wigfield and Guthrie, 1997 Curiosity, involvement, preference for challenges. Desire to learn and understand the world. Getting lost in a book. Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

9 Desire to receive external recognition or reward, Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991; Meece & Miller, 1999, Extrinsic incentives often lead students increasingly to become dependent on rewards and recognition to energize their reading (Barrett & Boggiano, 1988). Extrinsic Motivation Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

10 Self-Efficacy Peoples judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute types of performance (ones own judgment) Social Motivation Social motivation for reading is related to childrens interpersonal and community activities (others judgment) (Bandura (1997) And more motivation vocabulary …… Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

11 Reading motivation shifts over time. Childrens competence, beliefs and values tend to decline across elementary school years. Extrinsic motivation tends to increase as does their focus on performance goals. Their competence and efficacy beliefs become more closely tied to indicators of performance. Motivation to Read Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

12 Explanations for the motivation shift include: 1.Children are more aware of their own performance, more sophisticated at processing feedback they receive. 2. Instructional practices may contribute to a decline in some childrens motivation. Practices that focus on social comparison between children and promote competition can decrease motivation. Motivation to Read Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

13 McKenna (1995) found younger children like to read more than older children. He attributed the change to change in classroom conditions. Children in his study moved from a self-contained, responsive classroom that honored students voices and no grades, to a teacher-centered environment in which students had fewer opportunities for self-express and little opportunity for negotiating with teachers about their learning. Motivation to Read Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

14 Teachers can promote motivation: Learning and Knowledge Goals Real-World Interactions Autonomy Support Interesting Texts for Instruction Use of Strategy Instruction Collaboration and Social Discourse Praise and Rewards Evaluations Coherence of Instructional Processes (McKenna, 1995) Motivation to Read Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

15 Studies confirm the conventional wisdom that choice is motivating. Motivation to Read Choice is motivating because it gives the student control. Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

16 Fluency Reading Smoothly, Without Hesitation and With Comprehension (Harris & Hodges, 1995). Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

17 Fluent readers can read text with Speed Accuracy Expression Comprehension Fluency Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

18 Fluency Although fluency depends upon well developed word recognition skills, such skills do not inevitably lead to fluency. Fluency is generally acknowledged as a critical component of skilled reading but is often neglected in classroom instruction Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

19 While reading, a reader has only so much attention to focus on meaning. (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974 ). Fluency Theory Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

20 Fluency Theory Working with 2 nd graders, Dowhower (1987) found that oral reading, accuracy and comprehension improved significantly with repeated reading practice. Similar positive results have been found for 1 st graders (Simons, 1992); for 2 nd & 3 rd graders (Stahl, 1994). Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

21 Help students gain reading fluency Teacher-modeling Repeated guided reading (Handbook of Reading Research, 2000). Fluency Theory Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

22 Word recognition accuracy is not the end point of reading instruction. Fluency represents a level of expertise beyond word recognition accuracy. Skilled readers read words accurately, rapidly and efficiently. Children who do not develop reading fluency, no matter how bright they are, will continue to read slowly and with great effort. Fluency Practice Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

23 Fluency Practice Being an automatic or fluent reader is not developmental. Even highly skilled readers may encounter uncommon, low-frequency words such onoenology epistrophe anfractuous faience casuistically contralesional Delaware Reading Cadre, 2001

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