The Second Great Awakening Context: transcendentalists, individualism, simplicity, Walden, Thoreau, ‘self- reliance’ In contrast w/ Market Revolution, immigration, economic growth and crisis, Manifest Destiny, etc…
Second Great Awakening 1820s and 30s Increase in Baptists and Methodists Elite New England revival (began at Yale) Backwoods frontier revival ▫Significant for women and black Americans ▫Revival meetings that lasted months
The Second Great Awakening Rev. Charles Grandison Finney ▫100,000 conversions in one winter ▫Sought an affluent audience Upstate New York ‘burned over district’ American church members doubled from 1800-1830 Joseph Smith and Mormonism ▫Book of Mormon ▫Brigham Young & Polygamy ▫Utah Utopian communities searching for ‘perfection’ of mankind.
Utopian Societies Shakers—infusion of the spirit and trances Robert Owen—New Harmony Brook Farm—Massachusetts — Transcendentalists Oneida Community ▫John Humphrey Noyes ▫“Perfectionists” ▫Vermont—arrested for practicing ‘free love’ and ‘complex marriage’ ▫Fled to NY and started Oneida
Reform Movements—Education Education—Horace Mann ▫Public education—elementary ▫Only 300 secondary schools in the country ▫Mostly religious colleges/universities ▫State funded universities in the south and west
Reform Movements—Temperance Temperance ▫Most widespread of reform movements ▫1810—14,000 distilleries producing more than 25 million gallons of alcohol per year ▫American Temperance Union—1833 ▫Origin of various laws regarding alcohol sales (blue laws)
Reform Movements—Prisons & Asylums Public institutions for criminals, mentally ill, and orphans Development of penitentiaries Dorothea Dix—changing social attitudes toward mental illness
Reform Movements—Women’s Rights Harriet Beecher—A Treatise on Domestic Economy (Cult of Domesticity— Separate Spheres) Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony Seneca Falls Convention-- 1848