3 The Second Great Awakening was a religious movement that swept across the United States after 1800.
4 Transcendentalism and Reforms Despite the religious rebirth many people sought an alternative to traditional religion. One philosophical and literary movement was based on the ideas of Ralph Waldo Emerson, a New England writer and philosopher.Transcendentalism and Reforms
5 Emerson led a group practicing transcendentalism.
6 According to transcendentalism, people could find truth by looking at nature and within themselves rather than in an organized system of beliefs.
7 Transcendentalists believed in the dignity of the individual Transcendentalists believed in the dignity of the individual. They fought for social changes such as getting rid of slavery and improving conditions in prisons.
8 Emerson’s friend and fellow writer Henry David Thoreau practiced self reliance. He left his life and built a cabin on the shore of Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts. He lived alone there for two years.
9 Thoreau believed in civil disobedience Thoreau believed in civil disobedience. This meant he believed that people should protest and not obey laws they considered unjust.
11 Abolitionists Speak Out Free African Americans had urged the end of slavery for years. Gradually, more and more whites began to support abolition, the movement to end slavery.Abolitionists Speak Out
12 One of the more significant abolitionists was William Lloyd Garrison, a newspaper publisher. In his newspaper The Liberator, Garrison called for immediate emancipation, or freeing of the slaves.
13 Another important abolitionist was Frederick Douglass, a former slave. Born a slave in 1817, Douglass had been taught to read and write by the wife of one of his owners.
14 He wrote and spoke powerfully in favor of achieving emancipation through non violence. He founded an antislavery newspaper called The North Star.
15 In 1831, a Virginia slave named Nat Turner led a violent slave rebellion. He and his followers attacked five plantations.
17 Turner and his followers eventually were captured and executed.
18 Slave Owners Defend Slavery The Turner rebellion frightened white Southerners.Some argued that the only way to prevent rebellion was to abolish slavery.Sarah and Angelina Grimke
19 Virginia lawmakers introduced a bill that abolished slavery in the state. After a heated debate, the bill was defeated by a close vote.
20 That loss ended the debate on slavery in the antebellum, or pre-Civil War, South.
21 Across the South, state legislatures passed laws known as slave codes, restricting blacks’ rights even further. Under these new laws, slaves could not preach, testify in court, own property, or learn to read.
22 Despite the controversy surrounding slavery, many Southerners defended it. They argued that slavery actually benefited blacks by introducing them to Christianity.
23 Many southern white Christian churches gradually shifted their positions on slavery during this period.While some ministers had attacked slavery in the early 1800’s, by the 1830’s, most agreed that slavery and Christianity could coexist.
24 Southerners also invented the myth of the happy slave – a beloved member of the plantation family. They argued that unlike Northerners who fired their slaves, Southerners cared for their slaves for a lifetime.
25 Despite these claims from Southerners, the abolitionist movement continued. Northern legislators tried to introduce bills in Congress to abolish slavery.
26 Southern representatives responded by getting Congress to adopt a gag rule in Under this, legislators could limit or ban debate on any issue – including slavery.
28 American women in the early 1800’s had few rights American women in the early 1800’s had few rights. Social customs required women to restrict themselves to caring for the house. This idea came to be known as the cult of domesticity.
29 About one in ten single women worked outside the home About one in ten single women worked outside the home. They earned only half of what men earned for doing the same job.
30 Women could not vote or serve on juries Women could not vote or serve on juries. In many states, wives had to give their property to their husbands.
31 Despite such limits, many women actively participated in the important reform movements of the nineteenth century. Sarah and Angelina Grimké worked for the abolition of slavery.
32 Vaughan and other women joined the temperance movement Vaughan and other women joined the temperance movement. This was an effort to ban the drinking of alcohol.
33 Two women were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Two women were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Both had been abolitionists. In 1848, they organized a women’s right convention in Seneca Falls, New York.
34 It became known as the Seneca Falls convention It became known as the Seneca Falls convention. More than 300 women and men attended. They called for laws that guaranteed equal rights for women.
35 One of the more controversial rights women called for was suffrage, or the right to vote.
36 The women’s rights movement involved mostly whites The women’s rights movement involved mostly whites. For the most part, African American women found it difficult to draw attention to their plight. One exception was Sojourner Truth.
37 A former slave, Truth became famous for speaking out for both abolition and women’s rights.
39 The increase of factories in the 1800’s changed the way Americans worked. Before the 1820’s, textile, or cloth, makers spun thread in factories.Industry Changes Work
40 Then they employed people working at home to make clothing from the thread. This was known as the cottage industry system in which manufacturers provided the materials for goods to be manufactured at home.
41 By the 1830’s, factories had replaced the cottage industry system By the 1830’s, factories had replaced the cottage industry system. The thread as well as the clothes were made in factories.
42 At first, the women felt lucky to have these jobs At first, the women felt lucky to have these jobs. Factory work paid better than other jobs for women – teaching, sewing, and being a servant.
43 But throughout the early 1800’s, working conditions in textile mills steadily grew worse. The workday was more than 12 hours long.
45 In addition, managers forced workers to increase their pace In addition, managers forced workers to increase their pace. Between 1836 and 1850 Lowell owners tripled the number of spindles and looms.
46 However, they hired only 50 percent more workers to operate them However, they hired only 50 percent more workers to operate them. Factory rules tightened too.
47 After gulping a noon meal, workers had to rush back to their stations to avoid fines for lateness.
48 In response, 800 “mill girls” went on strike In response, 800 “mill girls” went on strike. A strike is a work stoppage in order to force an employer to respond to demands.
49 Irish immigrants came to the U. S. to escape the Great Potato Famine Irish immigrants came to the U.S. to escape the Great Potato Famine. In the 1840’s, a disease killed most of the potato crop in Ireland.
50 About 1 million Irish people starved About 1 million Irish people starved. More than 1 million came to the America.
51 The Irish faced prejudice in the United States because they were poor and Roman Catholic. Because they were poor, the Irish were willing to work for low wages.
52 As a result, employers used the Irish when their regular workers went on strike.
53 To increase their power, workers joined trade unions, or unions specific to each trade. These unions eventually joined together to form the National Trades’ Union in 1834.
54 To increase their power, workers joined trade unions, or unions specific to each trade. These unions eventually joined together to form the National Trades’ Union in 1834.