Presentation on theme: "EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE CIVIL WAR. Regional issues create differences- Sectionalism NORTH – URBAN –increase in city population (immigrants moved to."— Presentation transcript:
Regional issues create differences- Sectionalism NORTH – URBAN –increase in city population (immigrants moved to the cities =jobs ) Economies differed: Northeast – Industrial Revolution Economy focused on shipbuilding and foreign trade so embraced new forms of manufacturing
THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY 1.Agrarian Society 2. “Cotton Is King!” 1860 – 57% of US exports (5 million Bales exported per year) Cotton becomes king of the south which expanded slavery – increased from 700,000 (1790) to 1.5 million in 1820 (many had expected slavery to die out until the cotton gin was invented.
ELI WHITNEY He revolutionized cotton and slavery (many had expected slavery to die out until the cotton production increased=demand for labor) Whitney – interchangeable parts which paved the way for mass production= market economy Who else used mass production?
1787 Northwest Ordinance said all states north of the Ohio river would be free of slavery. This law did not solve the problem of slavery. 1819 – Missouri wanted to enter statehood as a slave state. ( By this time their was an even number of free and slave states. ) Slavery became a national issue Congress was deadlocked. Then in 1820 Maine wanted to join the Union as a free state. Missouri Compromise – Missouri enters as a slave state and Maine enters as a free state. Line 36 North – slavery would be banned. South of this line – slavery is permitted. THIS PLEASED NO ONE!
I have favored this Missouri compromise, believing it to be all that could be effected [accomplished] under the present Constitution, and from extreme unwillingness to put the Union at hazard [risk]... If the Union must be dissolved, slavery is precisely the question on which it ought to break. For the present however, the contest is laid asleep. —John Quincy Adams, 1820
Election of 1824 Second election that is decided in the House of Representatives! John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts Andrew Jackson of Tennessee William Crawford of Georgia Henry Clay of Kentucky
All 4 men ran as Republicans because there was not a multitude of political parties Even though Andrew Jackson received the most POPULAR vote, no man received a majority of the ELECTORAL vote. The Constitution states of the three highest electoral vote getters, the House of Representatives must choose the winner
Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams William Crawford – suffers a stroke - out Henry Clay – lowest votes – out Henry Clay (who also ran for President) was the Speaker of the House and was able to manipulate the choice. He despised Andrew Jackson…. So ADAMS WINS!
Several days later Henry Clay was chosen Secretary of State. Many Jacksonians felt that a deal was made between Clay and Adams (never proven)
The only President to become a member of the House of Representatives after being President. (slept a lot!) 1825-1829 John Quincy Adams Despite corruption charges the system continues…
ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON 1824 – Jackson lost to J. Q Adams 1828 – Jackson beat Adams Jackson –champion of common people – “Old Hickory” Gave many jobs to friends Spoils system
Election of 1828 Political fighting Jackson accused Adams of being a pimp and taking large payments from the federal government Adams accused Rachel Jackson of being adulterous and a bigamist and Jackson’s mother as a prostitute
Indian removal Act 1830- Congress and Jackson passed this law which forced Native Americans to move. Govt. paid for the move 1832 –Cherokee took it to court and Supreme Court sided with Cherokees but Jackson refused to abide by it.
Jackson said "John Marshall (Supreme Court) has made his decision; let him enforce it now if he can.“ Andrew Jackson didn’t plan to enforce the Supreme Court’s ruling to allow the Cherokee to stay where they were! The President’s job is to enforce the law!! He didn’t do it.
TRAIL OF TEARS 1838 Cherokee were rounded up and sent in groups of a 1000 on the 800 mile journey on foot. More than ¼ of their people died
Spoils System Fear that a mob would take over DC and the White House in 1828 Many people did flood into the White House after the Inauguration Jackson believed that “every man is as good as his neighbor” One man was given the job of customs collector of New York port – left the country with $1 million
Tariff of 1828 Tariffs are taxes placed on goods sold to others (protectionism) If we put a tariff on our goods, other countries will do the same with theirs The north was in favor of the tariff to protect their manufacturing goods The south was against a tariff because it made it expensive for them
Southerners called it the TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS South Carolina led the way in protest Fear that the government would also regulate slavery National government versus states’ rights The South Carolina Exposition was written by VP John C. Calhoun Denounced the tariff as unconstitutional
Stated that the states should declare the tariff “null and void”
SHOWDOWN! Between Jackson and the South Carolinians Tariff of 1832 lowered the rates a little South Carolina legislature voted to declare the tariff “null and void” and threatened to take South Carolina out of the union if customs duties were collected
Jackson quietly started raising troops and verbally warned South Carolina Henry Clay – Compromise Tariff of 1833 – lowered rates over a period of 8 years Force Bill – authorized the President to use the army and navy, if necessary to collect federal tariff duties
The Bank War The depository for the funds of the Washington Government and controlled the nation’s gold and silver Private institution Bank President Nicholas Biddle Many westerners hated the bank due to foreclosures
The bank was due to expire in 1836. Clay pushed to renew it in 1832 as part of his Presidential campaign JACKSON VETOED THE BANK! “The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it”
1832 Clay vs. Jackson Jackson beat Clay with a lopsided electoral victory
Nullification and the Bank Wars Read in Chapter about this and answer the following questions in your notes. 1. What was the Tariff of Abominations? 2. Why did Calhoun and the South see the Tariff of 1828 as such an abomination and raise threats over nullification over it? 3. How did Jackson’s bank war demonstrate the powerful uses to which the modern mass democratic political machine could be put? Was Biddle’s Bank a real threat to the economic welfare of the ordinary citizens to whom Jackson appealed?
WHIG PARTY A new party emerges from opponents of Jackson Whigs – claimed conservatism, progressive, and welcomed market economy ELECTION of 1836 VP –(Democrats) Martin Van Buren wins
MARTIN VAN BUREN- HIGHLIGHTS Panic of 1837 – Left over from Jackson’s bank wars – banks stopped accepting paper currency Banks collapsed- bankrupting hundreds of businesses which put people out of work
ELECTION OF 1840 Whig candidate William Harrison defeated Van Buren Only in office a month-died from pneumonia which he caught giving his inauguration address