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EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE CIVIL WAR. Regional issues create differences- Sectionalism  NORTH – URBAN –increase in city population (immigrants moved to.

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Presentation on theme: "EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE CIVIL WAR. Regional issues create differences- Sectionalism  NORTH – URBAN –increase in city population (immigrants moved to."— Presentation transcript:


2 Regional issues create differences- Sectionalism  NORTH – URBAN –increase in city population (immigrants moved to the cities =jobs )  Economies differed:  Northeast – Industrial Revolution  Economy focused on shipbuilding and foreign trade so embraced new forms of manufacturing

3 THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY 1.Agrarian Society 2. “Cotton Is King!”  1860 – 57% of US exports (5 million Bales exported per year) Cotton becomes king of the south which expanded slavery – increased from 700,000 (1790) to 1.5 million in 1820 (many had expected slavery to die out until the cotton gin was invented.

4 ELI WHITNEY  He revolutionized cotton and slavery (many had expected slavery to die out until the cotton production increased=demand for labor)  Whitney – interchangeable parts which paved the way for mass production= market economy  Who else used mass production?

5  1787 Northwest Ordinance said all states north of the Ohio river would be free of slavery. This law did not solve the problem of slavery.  1819 – Missouri wanted to enter statehood as a slave state. ( By this time their was an even number of free and slave states. )  Slavery became a national issue  Congress was deadlocked.  Then in 1820 Maine wanted to join the Union as a free state.  Missouri Compromise – Missouri enters as a slave state and Maine enters as a free state. Line 36 North – slavery would be banned. South of this line – slavery is permitted.  THIS PLEASED NO ONE!


7  I have favored this Missouri compromise, believing it to be all that could be effected [accomplished] under the present Constitution, and from extreme unwillingness to put the Union at hazard [risk]... If the Union must be dissolved, slavery is precisely the question on which it ought to break. For the present however, the contest is laid asleep.  —John Quincy Adams, 1820

8 Age of Jackson

9 Election of 1824  Second election that is decided in the House of Representatives!  John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts  Andrew Jackson of Tennessee  William Crawford of Georgia  Henry Clay of Kentucky

10  All 4 men ran as Republicans because there was not a multitude of political parties  Even though Andrew Jackson received the most POPULAR vote, no man received a majority of the ELECTORAL vote.  The Constitution states of the three highest electoral vote getters, the House of Representatives must choose the winner

11  Andrew Jackson  John Quincy Adams  William Crawford – suffers a stroke - out  Henry Clay – lowest votes – out   Henry Clay (who also ran for President) was the Speaker of the House and was able to manipulate the choice. He despised Andrew Jackson….   So ADAMS WINS!

12  Several days later Henry Clay was chosen Secretary of State.  Many Jacksonians felt that a deal was made between Clay and Adams (never proven)

13 The only President to become a member of the House of Representatives after being President. (slept a lot!) 1825-1829 John Quincy Adams Despite corruption charges the system continues…

14 ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON  1824 – Jackson lost to J. Q Adams  1828 – Jackson beat Adams  Jackson –champion of common people – “Old Hickory”  Gave many jobs to friends  Spoils system

15 Election of 1828  Political fighting  Jackson accused Adams of being a pimp and taking large payments from the federal government  Adams accused Rachel Jackson of being adulterous and a bigamist and Jackson’s mother as a prostitute

16 Indian removal Act  1830- Congress and Jackson passed this law which forced Native Americans to move. Govt. paid for the move  1832 –Cherokee took it to court and Supreme Court sided with Cherokees but Jackson refused to abide by it.

17  Jackson said "John Marshall (Supreme Court) has made his decision; let him enforce it now if he can.“  Andrew Jackson didn’t plan to enforce the Supreme Court’s ruling to allow the Cherokee to stay where they were!  The President’s job is to enforce the law!! He didn’t do it.

18 TRAIL OF TEARS  1838 Cherokee were rounded up and sent in groups of a 1000 on the 800 mile journey on foot. More than ¼ of their people died

19 Spoils System  Fear that a mob would take over DC and the White House in 1828  Many people did flood into the White House after the Inauguration  Jackson believed that “every man is as good as his neighbor”  One man was given the job of customs collector of New York port – left the country with $1 million

20 Tariff of 1828  Tariffs are taxes placed on goods sold to others (protectionism)  If we put a tariff on our goods, other countries will do the same with theirs  The north was in favor of the tariff to protect their manufacturing goods  The south was against a tariff because it made it expensive for them

21  Southerners called it the TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS  South Carolina led the way in protest  Fear that the government would also regulate slavery  National government versus states’ rights  The South Carolina Exposition was written by VP John C. Calhoun  Denounced the tariff as unconstitutional

22  Stated that the states should declare the tariff “null and void”

23 SHOWDOWN!  Between Jackson and the South Carolinians  Tariff of 1832 lowered the rates a little  South Carolina legislature voted to declare the tariff “null and void” and threatened to take South Carolina out of the union if customs duties were collected

24  Jackson quietly started raising troops and verbally warned South Carolina  Henry Clay – Compromise Tariff of 1833 – lowered rates over a period of 8 years  Force Bill – authorized the President to use the army and navy, if necessary to collect federal tariff duties

25 The Bank War  The depository for the funds of the Washington Government and controlled the nation’s gold and silver  Private institution  Bank President Nicholas Biddle  Many westerners hated the bank due to foreclosures

26  The bank was due to expire in 1836.  Clay pushed to renew it in 1832 as part of his Presidential campaign  JACKSON VETOED THE BANK!  “The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it”

27 1832 Clay vs. Jackson  Jackson beat Clay with a lopsided electoral victory

28 Nullification and the Bank Wars   Read in Chapter about this and answer the following questions in your notes.   1. What was the Tariff of Abominations?   2. Why did Calhoun and the South see the Tariff of 1828 as such an abomination and raise threats over nullification over it?   3. How did Jackson’s bank war demonstrate the powerful uses to which the modern mass democratic political machine could be put? Was Biddle’s Bank a real threat to the economic welfare of the ordinary citizens to whom Jackson appealed?


30 WHIG PARTY   A new party emerges from opponents of Jackson   Whigs – claimed conservatism, progressive, and welcomed market economy   ELECTION of 1836   VP –(Democrats) Martin Van Buren wins

31 MARTIN VAN BUREN- HIGHLIGHTS   Panic of 1837 –   Left over from Jackson’s bank wars – banks stopped accepting paper currency   Banks collapsed- bankrupting hundreds of businesses which put people out of work

32 ELECTION OF 1840   Whig candidate William Harrison defeated Van Buren   Only in office a month-died from pneumonia which he caught giving his inauguration address

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