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By: Jaleshia Edwards, Trazjon Slaughter, David Peralta

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1 By: Jaleshia Edwards, Trazjon Slaughter, David Peralta
Excretory System By: Jaleshia Edwards, Trazjon Slaughter, David Peralta

2 Vocabulary Nephrons: the functional units of the kidneys
Ureters: tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder Urethra: the tube that leads from the bladder to the outside of the body Cystitis: inflammation of the bladder Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra Hemodialysis: a technique in which an artificial kidney machine removes waste products from the blood

3 Continued… Lungs: expel when you breath
Skin: as sweat evaporates on the surface of the skin, it cools the body Large Intestine: solid wastes produced by the digestive system are eliminated

4 Excretory System Removes waste from body
Sweating is another form of excretion Removes excess water & salt Helps regulate body temp.

5 The Liver Removes certain toxins from blood
1st organ to receive chemicals absorbed from small intestine Detoxifies body by processing & excreting into bile ex: drugs, alcohol, some cellular waste products

6 Urinary System Consist of kidneys, bladder, ureters, & urethra
Main function to filter waste & extra fluid from blood Urine liquid waste material excreted from body Consist of water & body waste that contain nitrogen

7 Kidneys Bean shaped organ size of a fist
Near middle of back just below rib cage on each side Removes waste products from blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons

8 Nephrons Each kidney contains more than a million nephrons
Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries called aglomerulus Attached to small renal tubule that acts as a filtering funnel Kidneys adjust amount of salts, water & other material excreted according to body’s needs

9 The Ureters Tubes that connect kidneys to bladder
Each Ureter is about 8 to 10 inches long Muscles in Ureter walls tighten & relax force urine down to bladder about every 15 seconds

10 The Bladder & Urethra Hollow muscular organ in pelvic cavity
Bladder held in place by ligaments attached to other organs & pelvic bones Stores about 2 cups of Urine from leaking Sphincter muscles close tightly like a rubber band around opening of bladder into Urethra

11 Maintaining Your excretory Health
Drink at least 8-ounces of water each day Limit intake of caffeine & soft drinks, can increase amount of water last through urination Follow a well-balanced eating plan Practice good hygiene to prevent harmful bacteria from causing infection Get regular medical checkups. Report changes in bowel habits & in frequency, color, or odor of urine.

12 Excretory System Problems
Disorders of excretory system can have several different causes Including infection, blockage of urine, or natural aging Two common disorders of urinary system are cystitis & Urethritis Symptoms of both conditions: burning pain during urination, increased frequency of urination, fever, & possibly blood in urine Treatment requires visit to doctor & may include antibiotics to eliminate infection

13 Kidney Problems Nephritis: inflammation of nephrons. Symptoms include a change in amount of urine produced, fever, & swelling of body tissues Kidney stones: form when salts in urine crystallize into solid stones. Can move in ureter causing pain. May also block passage of urine. Small stones may pass naturally. Large stones can be broke up using shock waves. Some cases require surgery.

14 Continued….. Uremia: is a serious condition associated with decreased blood filtration by kidneys, leading to abnormally high levels of nitrogen waste products remaining in blood. Waste are poisonous to body cells & can cause tissue damage, or death if allowed to accumulate.

15 Kidney failure Occurs when kidneys lose their ability to function.
Can be caused by infection, decreased blood flow, or diseases that damage kidney tissue. Treatments: Hemodialysis; a machine that filters the blood. Takes 3 to 5 hours. Done 3 to 4 times per week.

16 Continued… Peritoneal dialysis: uses peritoneum, a thin membrane that surrounds the digestive organs, to filter the blood. Substances that promote removal of toxins enter into abdomen through catheter & are drained after filtration is complete Kidney transplant: option for chronic kidney failure. Involves replacement of a nonfunctioning kidney with a healthy kidney from a organ donor.


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