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Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement

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Steps in the Scientific Method 1.Observations - quantitative - qualitative 2.Formulating hypotheses - possible explanation for the observation 3.Performing experiments - gathering new information to decide whether the hypothesis is valid whether the hypothesis is valid

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Outcomes Over the Long-Term Theory (Model) - A set of tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon. overall explanation of some natural phenomenon. Natural Law - The same observation applies to many different systems different systems - Example - Law of Conservation of Mass

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The Scientific Method

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Law v. Theory A law summarizes what happens; a theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happens.

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Nature of Measurement Measurement - quantitative observation consisting of 2 parts Part 1 - number Part 2 - scale (unit) Examples: 20 grams 6.63 Joule seconds

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International System (le Système International) Based on metric system and units derived from metric system.

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The Fundamental SI Units

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Uncertainty in Measurement A digit that must be estimated is called uncertain. A measurement always has some degree of uncertainty.

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Precision and Accuracy Accuracy refers to the agreement of a particular value with the true value. Precision refers to the degree of agreement among several elements of the same quantity.

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Figure 01.24a

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Figure 01.24ab

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Figure 01.24

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Types of Error Random Error (Indeterminate Error) - measurement has an equal probability of being high or low. Systematic Error (Determinate Error) - Occurs in the same direction each time (high or low), often resulting from poor technique.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Overview 1.Nonzero integers 2.Zeros - leading zeros - captive zeros - trailing zeros 3.Exact numbers

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Nonzero integers always count as significant figures. 3456 has 4 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros - Leading zeros do not count as significant figures. 0.0486 has 3 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros - Captive zeros always count as significant figures. 16.07 has 4 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros - Trailing zeros are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 9.300 has 4 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures. 1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly

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Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Multiplication and Division: # sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation. 6.38 2.0 = 12.76 13 (2 sig figs)

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Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Addition and Subtraction: # decimal places in the result equals the number of decimal places in the least precise measurement. 6.8 + 11.934 = 18.734 18.7 (3 sig figs)

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Dimensional Analysis Proper use of “unit factors” leads to proper units in your answer. 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 pound = 453.59 g 1 gallon = 3.7854 L

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Figure 01.25-02UNEOC

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Figure 01.25-03UN

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Dimensional Analysis 1.49 (b) The recommended adult dose of Elixophyllin®, a drug used to treat asthma, is 6 mg/kg of body mass. Calculate the dose in milligrams for a 150-lb person. (1 lb=453.59 g)

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Temperature Celsius scale = C Kelvin scale = K Fahrenheit scale = F

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Temperature

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Figure 01.17

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Density Density is the mass of substance per unit volume of the substance:

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Table 01.06

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Using Density Determine the thickness of a sheet of platinum, in millimeters, that is a square 1.25 in. per side. The piece of platinum weighs 1.656 grams. (The density of Pt is 21.45 g cm -3 )

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Matter: Anything occupying space and having mass.

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The Big Bang

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Classification of Matter Three States of Matter: Solid: rigid - fixed volume and shape Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of its container Gas: no fixed volume or shape - assumes the shape of its container

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Figure 01.04

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Types of Mixtures Mixtures have variable composition. A homogeneous mixture is a solution (for example, vinegar) A heterogeneous mixture is, to the naked eye, clearly not uniform (for example, a bottle of ranch dressing)

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Mixtures and Compounds

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Pure Substances Can be isolated by separation methods: - Chromatography Chromatography - Filtration - Distillation

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Figure 01.14

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Figure 01.12

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Electrolysis of Water

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Figure 01.07

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Compound or Element Element: A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means. Compound: A substance with a constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.

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Elemental Composition

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End

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