 # Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement. Steps in the Scientific Method 1.Observations - quantitative -  qualitative 2.Formulating hypotheses.

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Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement

Steps in the Scientific Method 1.Observations - quantitative -  qualitative 2.Formulating hypotheses -  possible explanation for the observation 3.Performing experiments -  gathering new information to decide whether the hypothesis is valid whether the hypothesis is valid

Outcomes Over the Long-Term Theory (Model) -  A set of tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon. overall explanation of some natural phenomenon. Natural Law - The same observation applies to many different systems different systems - Example - Law of Conservation of Mass

The Scientific Method

Law v. Theory A law summarizes what happens; a theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happens.

Nature of Measurement Measurement - quantitative observation consisting of 2 parts Part 1 - number Part 2 - scale (unit) Examples: 20 grams 6.63    Joule seconds

International System (le Système International) Based on metric system and units derived from metric system.

The Fundamental SI Units

Uncertainty in Measurement A digit that must be estimated is called uncertain. A measurement always has some degree of uncertainty.

Precision and Accuracy Accuracy refers to the agreement of a particular value with the true value. Precision refers to the degree of agreement among several elements of the same quantity.

Figure 01.24a

Figure 01.24ab

Figure 01.24

Types of Error Random Error (Indeterminate Error) - measurement has an equal probability of being high or low. Systematic Error (Determinate Error) - Occurs in the same direction each time (high or low), often resulting from poor technique.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Overview 1.Nonzero integers 2.Zeros - leading zeros - captive zeros - trailing zeros 3.Exact numbers

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Nonzero integers always count as significant figures. 3456 has 4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros - Leading zeros do not count as significant figures. 0.0486 has 3 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros - Captive zeros always count as significant figures. 16.07 has 4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Zeros -  Trailing zeros are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 9.300 has 4 sig figs.

Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures. 1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly

Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Multiplication and Division: # sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation. 6.38  2.0 = 12.76  13 (2 sig figs)

Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Addition and Subtraction: # decimal places in the result equals the number of decimal places in the least precise measurement. 6.8 + 11.934 = 18.734  18.7 (3 sig figs)

Dimensional Analysis Proper use of “unit factors” leads to proper units in your answer. 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 pound = 453.59 g 1 gallon = 3.7854 L

Figure 01.25-02UNEOC

Figure 01.25-03UN

Dimensional Analysis 1.49 (b) The recommended adult dose of Elixophyllin®, a drug used to treat asthma, is 6 mg/kg of body mass. Calculate the dose in milligrams for a 150-lb person. (1 lb=453.59 g)

Temperature Celsius scale =  C Kelvin scale = K Fahrenheit scale =  F

Temperature

Figure 01.17

Density Density is the mass of substance per unit volume of the substance:

Table 01.06

Using Density Determine the thickness of a sheet of platinum, in millimeters, that is a square 1.25 in. per side. The piece of platinum weighs 1.656 grams. (The density of Pt is 21.45 g cm -3 )

Matter: Anything occupying space and having mass.

The Big Bang

Classification of Matter Three States of Matter: Solid: rigid - fixed volume and shape Liquid: definite volume but assumes the shape of its container Gas: no fixed volume or shape - assumes the shape of its container

Figure 01.04

Types of Mixtures Mixtures have variable composition. A homogeneous mixture is a solution (for example, vinegar) A heterogeneous mixture is, to the naked eye, clearly not uniform (for example, a bottle of ranch dressing)

Mixtures and Compounds

Pure Substances Can be isolated by separation methods: -  Chromatography Chromatography - Filtration - Distillation

Figure 01.14

Figure 01.12

Electrolysis of Water

Figure 01.07

Compound or Element Element: A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means. Compound: A substance with a constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.

Elemental Composition

End

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