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Plant Structure and Tissue

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure and Tissue"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure and Tissue

2 I. Plant Tissue 1)Ground Tissues - provides storage, metabolism, and support.

3 a. Parenchyma Large, loosely packed, rectangular cells with thin cell walls. Responsible for photosynthesis and food storage. Over 80 % of the cells in non-woody plants.

4 b. Collenchyma Elongated cells with uneven, flexible, thicker cell walls. This tissue supports the growth regions of a plant. c. Sclerenchyma Cells are short-lived with thick cell walls. Has a second cell wall Serves to support the plant. The cells that give a plant its "woody" characteristics.

5 2) Dermal Tissues - forms the outside covering of plants and provides protection.

6 a. Epidermis The outer layer of cells. Protects the plant and reduces water loss (cuticle) b. Stomata Regulate gases passing into and out of the plant Usually located on the under side of leaves. Guard cells regulate the opening by changing water pressure within the cell to swell or shrink. c. Cork: closely packed cells protecting a woody stem.

7 3) Vascular Tissues - transport water and food through the plant.


9 a.Phloem: straw-like tubes conducting f ood upward or downward in a plant. b. Xylem: straw-like tubes conducting water and minerals upward in a plant by capillary action.

10 Water is moved to the tops of very tall trees by capillary action, the adhesion/cohesion of water, transpirational pull, and root pressure. PRESSURE-FLOW HYPOTHESIS

11 Warm-up (3/29 & 3/30) Turn in plant drawings and pick up a transpiration lab 1.What type of plant has vascular tissue and no seeds? 2.A flowering plant with 6 petals and parallel leaf veins is known as what? 3.What type of tissue protects the plant from drying out? 4.Which type of vascular tissue moves water up the plant?

12 Objectives Mosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms Ground, Dermal, and Vascular Tissue Primary vs. Secondary Growth Leaf, Root, Stem, Flower Parts Hormone functions in plants Plant’s responses to the environment

13 II. Plant Growth 1)Meristems: growth regions where cells divide rapidly and tissue differentiation occurs.

14 Two patterns of growth in seed plants 1) Primary growth- elongation of stems and roots Apical meristem - located at the tips of stems and roots. Apical meristems produce growth in length

15 2) Secondary growth - roots, stems and branches of certain seed plants grow wider Two types of lateral meristems: –Vascular cambium - located between the xylem and phloem, producing additional vascular tissues. (inside - creates rings) –Cork cambium - located outside the phloem, producing cork replacing epidermis.


17 III. Plant Structure Plants have three basic parts

18 A. Leaf 1)Function - leaves capture light from the sun - leaves make glucose through photosynthesis - leaves take-in CO2 release oxygen O2

19 Photosynthesis

20 Effect of Light Intensity on the Rate of Photosynthesis


22 2) Structure - top layer is made of a waxy cuticle (prevents H 2 O loss) and epidermis -middle layer is the mesophyll ‘spongy layer’ (most photosynthesis occurs at this layer) -bottom layer exchanges gases through the stomata (transpiration) Stomata


24 Guard Cells Image of a Stomata


26 B. Stems 1)Function - stems support the plant - stems hold the leaves toward the sunlight - inside the stem water and nutrients travel to other plant parts - stems of some plants store glucose in the form of starch

27 2) Types of stems a) Woody stem- found in trees and shrubs b) Herbaceous stem- found in flowers and grasses

28 1/30/07 L28 Stem (Wood) HEARTWOOD - Inactive xylem SAPWOOD - Active xylem


30 1/30/07 L30 Annual Rings

31 C. Roots 1)Function - Roots support and anchor the plant (Similar to Rhizoids) - Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil - Roots store glucose (starch) –Root cell growth pattern: Division, elongation, and differentiation

32 2) Structure Taproot system - the primary root grows much larger than the other roots of the plant. Fibrous root system - the primary root does not grow large so that many roots of the plant are similar in size. Primary root - the first root to grow out of a seed. Adventitious roots - specialized roots that grow from plant stems or leaves. Root cap - a shield of parenchyma cells covering the apical meristem at the root tip. Root hairs - small extensions of a root, these greatly increase the surface area of the root for absorption.

33 3) Typesof roots - Taproot - Fibrous - Aboveground

34 Label the Roots FibrousTaproot Aboveground

35 Epiphytes Plants that are not rooted in soil but instead grow directly on the bodies of other plants. Most are found in tropical rainforest biomes and they are NOT parasitic. Orchid Spanish Moss




39 Plant Adaptations Aquatic plants To take in sufficient oxygen, aquatic plants, have tissues with large air-filled spaces through which oxygen can diffuse. Stomata located on top of leaf! Desert plants Have extensive roots, reduced leaves, and thick stems that can store water. Leaves are modified to reduce evaporative water loss and, often, to deter herbivores.

40 Nutritional Specialists Plants that have specialized features for obtaining nutrients include carnivorous plants and parasites. Rapid Response

41 Chemical Defenses Many plants defend themselves against insect attack by manufacturing compounds that have powerful effects on animals.

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