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Nutrition and Wellness

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Wellness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #1: (on your own paper) Turn in all measuring entry tasks 1-4 What is foodborn illness? How can it be prevented? (complete sentences) Do not turn in paper until end of unit Today: Measuring and kitchen math test Food Safety Video

2 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #2: (on yesterday’s paper) When is it important to wear gloves when serving or preparing food? What temperatures refer to the “Danger Zone?” How long should we wash our hands? Do not turn in entry task paper until end of unit Today: Food Safety thermometer

3 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #3: (on yesterday’s paper) List four symptoms of food poisoning. Do not turn in entry task paper until end of unit Today: Finish Food Safety thermometer Periods 5 min. short

4 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #4: (on entry task paper) Discuss two separate parts of the video , Food In., where they referenced food safety issues or prctices. Do not turn in entry task paper until end of unit Today: Food safety book This week’s lab: taco salad

5 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #5: (on entry task paper) Give an 3 examples of foods which are most likely to become unsafe. Turn in entry task paper 1-5 Today: Food safety powerpoint This week’s lab: taco salad

6 Nutrition and Wellness
Entry task #2: (on entry task paper) Which of these is still safe to eat after sitting at room temperature for more than two hours? (A) baked potato, (B) meat loaf wrapped in foil, (C) meat loaf in a pan, (D) boiled rice, (E) none of the above. Turn in entry task paper Today: Food safety brochure/music video Finish Ch. 5


8 Food Safety

9 Foodborne Illness vs. Food Poisoning
Foodborne Illness is when people get sick from the food they eat because it has harmful chemicals or germs. Food Poisoning are chemicals, bacteria, or certain foods (poisonous mushrooms) that can cause poisoning. Symptoms are noticed hours after eating and include vomiting.

10 Foodborne Infections (Most Common)
Caused by germs that grow in food or inside of our bodies. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, fever, headache, stomach ache, or a positive test for Salmonella, E. Coli, or Hepatitis A and may occur several hours to several weeks after eating food.

11 Brief Descriptions of Foodborne Illnesses
Salmonella-a bacterium that is widespread in the intestines of birds, reptiles and mammals. It causes fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps.  E. Coli bacterial pathogen that has a reservoir in cattle and other similar animals.  Human illness typically follows consumption of food or water that has been contaminated with microscopic amounts of cow feces.  The illness it causes is often a severe and bloody diarrhea and painful abdominal cramps, without much fever.  Campylobacter-a bacterial pathogen that causes fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.  It is the most commonly identified bacterial cause of diarrhea illness in the world. 

12 Foodborne Illnesses Continued
Hepatitis A-Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, from close person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or drinks. Botulism-occurs when a person ingests pre-formed toxin that leads to illness within a few hours to days. Trichinosis-caused by eating raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with the larvae of a species of worm called Trichinella.

13 Highly Susceptible Populations
Highly Susceptible Populations are people that get sick more often or have more serious illness. These people are: *Younger than 5 years old *Older than 65 years old *Pregnant *Immune-compromised (due to cancer, AIDS, diabetes, certain medications/conditions)

14 Common Foods Causing Foodborne Illness
Undercooked meats Raw oysters Undercooked eggs Sprouts Unpasteurized milk/juices

15 Jack in the Box January 1993 The primary cause of the outbreak was adulterated hamburger patties manufactured and sold to the restaurant chain by one of its suppliers. Litigation that resulted from this outbreak took years, and tens of millions of dollars, to resolve.

16 Jack in the Box Jack in the Box reported that in the 18 months following the outbreak the company lost approximately $160 million Washington reported 602 patients with bloody diarrhea 477 were culture-confirmed with E. coli infections 4 children died

17 Top 3 Ways to Protect Yourself
Good personal hygiene Correct temperatures Prevention of cross contamination Leading Causes of Illness Lack of hand washing Sick people working with food Not properly cooking, cooling, or reheating food

18 Hand Washing Wash hands before food preparation
Hand washing should last at least 20 seconds. *Step 1 Wet hands *Step 2 Scrub (10-15) seconds *Step 3 Rinse *Step 4 Dry Washing hands often is the most important thing you can do to keep germs out of your body and food. Hand sanitizers can NOT replace hand washing.

19 Cooking Temperatures 165 degrees Fahrenheit for poultry, stuffed foods, and casseroles 155 degrees Fahrenheit for hamburger and sausage 145 degrees Fahrenheit for eggs, fish, and pork 140 degrees Fahrenheit vegetables to be held

20 Cross Contamination Happens when bacteria from raw foods get onto other foods. Blood or juice from raw chicken or other meat gets onto a counter, cutting board, utensils, or hands, bacteria can spread to other food. It is important to keep raw meat away from other food.

21 Lemon video

22 Proper Way to Thaw Food In refrigerator (safest and slowest)
Submerged under cold running water As part of cooking process or in microwave (needs to be completely cooked after thawed)

23 Three Approved Methods for Cooling Food
All of the following are done uncovered. Shallow pan- no more than 2 inches deep. Size reduction- cut solid foods to small foods. Time and temperature monitored-need to use a log and must be completely cooled within 6 hours.

24 Washing Dishes by Hand Scrape leftover food into the garbage
Wash dishes in hot soapy water Rinse dishes with clean, hot water Sanitize by soaking the dishes in warm water and an approved sanitizer (1 teaspoon of bleach with 1 gallon of water) Air dry all dishes and utensils

25 Food Safety and Sanitation

26 Importance of Food Safety and Sanitation
Lack of proper food safety and food sanitation can cause: Loss of customers and sales Loss of prestige and reputation Lawsuits—resulting in lawyer and court fees Increased insurance premiums Lowered employee morale Employee absenteeism Need for retraining employees Embarrassment Suggested Reading Assignments ServSafe Certification Course Book The Art and Science of Culinary Preparation pg ,434,519 It is not possible to over emphasize the importance of safety and sanitation in the preparation of food. The food handler has no greater responsibility than protecting the people who eat the food they prepare. Confusion may occur in the discussion of safe and sanitary food handling based on misinterpretation of the term wholesome. Food does not have to be well seasoned or good tasting to be considered wholesome. In the foodservice context Safe is the act of applying the principles of sanitary food storage, handling, and preparation to maintain the wholesomeness (fit for human consumption) of the food. Sanitary is defined as clean or hygienic. Clean is the removal of visible dirt and soil. Sanitize is the reduction of pathogens on an object or in an environment to a safe level.

27 Biological Contamination
Bacteria Can multiply rapidly to disease-causing levels at favorable temperatures Can produce toxins in food that can poison humans when the food is eaten Cause most foodborne illnesses Current epidemiological data indicate that the most important foodborne diseases are caused by microbes, primarily Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. In addition to the aforementioned microorganisms, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus remain troublesome, particularly in the area of food service. Meat and poultry products remain important sources of foodborne disease. These products may become contaminated during slaughter and processing and can lead to disease if they are undercooked or mishandled, or temperature abused. (Healthy People 2000 Status Report - FDA) The microorganism most often involved in foodborne illness is bacteria. Bacteria are single celled organisms which require nutrients to maintain its functions. The cell absorbs nutrients through its cell wall. Some bacteria are beneficial, aiding in the digestion of food and the decomposing of garbage. These bacteria are called putrefactives. Some putrefactives are important in the controlled decay and degradation of certain foods to achieve different flavors and textures, such as game that has been hung. Putrefactives are not a concern in safe and sanitary food preparation. Bacteria living in food that cause foodborne illnesses are a concern.

28 Biological Contamination—continued
Viruses Do not grow in food, but can be transported by food items Transported by many food items, including ice and water Bacteria living in food cause foodborne illness either through infection, intoxication or a combination of these two termed toxin-mediated infection. Infection foodborne illness is caused by a type of bacterium called a pathogen. A pathogen is a bacteria that is an infectious disease-causing agent which feeds on nutrients in potentially hazardous foods and multiplies rapidly at favorable temperatures. A pathogen causes illness, when it is present in sufficient number. Intoxication foodborne illness is caused by toxin producing bacteria, such as staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria are not infectious in themselves, but as they multiply in food they discharge toxins (poisons) harmful to humans. Toxin-mediated infections are caused by bacteria such as clostridium perfrigens . These bacteria grow colonies in human and animal intestinal tracts. The bacteria itself causes illness when present in sufficient number and while it is reproducing it is discharging toxins that poison the host. Bacteria reproduce in a very simple way. They split, producing a clone of themselves. When the conditions are right a single cell will become billions of cells in hours.

29 Biological Contamination—continued
Parasites Live inside a host to survive Can cause people to become infected if they eat raw or undercooked meat Fungi Molds: Cause illnesses, infections, and allergies Yeast: Spoils food Bacteria, as with all living things, need nourishment to survive. The foods that best provide this nourishment are termed potentially hazardous foods. A potentially hazardous food meets all three requirements for the food best for bacteria: a water activity level of at least .85, high in protein, and a moderate pH level. The list of potentially hazardous foods includes meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, and dairy products. While most vegetables and fruits do not contain sufficient protein to be classified as potentially hazardous, there are some grains, vegetables, and grain and vegetable products that when cooked are classified as potentially hazardous including tofu, beans, winter squash and rice. Protein and potato salads, low-acid foods, cream-filled products, custards and sauces other than those high in acid are all considered potentially hazardous. These types of foods must be handled with great care to prevent foodborne illness. Temperature and time are two of the major areas of control. The temperature range at which the majority of bacteria grow rapidly is between 60oF (16oC) and 120oF (49oC). Note that this temperature is very close to the temperature range commonly thought of as room temperature. Based on this temperature range a Danger Zone for the handling and holding of potentially hazardous and prepared foods has been established. The recommended and most commonly used range for the Danger Zone is considered to be 40oF (4oC)-to-140oF (60oC). The basic rule is that cold food should be kept below 40oF (4oC) and hot food should be kept above 140oF (60oC).

30 FAT-TOM Food Acidity Time
Temperature Oxygen Moisture Conditions that favor the growth of most foodborne organisms Temperature is used to control bacteria not only through application of the Danger Zone limits. It is known that when foods are cooked or reheated the temperature necessary to insure they are safe and that pathogens present in the food have been destroyed requires temperatures higher than 140oF (60oC). Potentially hazardous foods and foods which are being reheated must be brought to specific temperatures to be safe, such as 165oF (74oC) for stuffed fish . The killing of bacteria can be achieved in the kitchen with high heat, however, it generally cannot be done with the removal of heat. The temperature of freezers in kitchens is not low enough to kill bacteria. When foods are frozen, bacteria simply enter a state similar to suspended animation. When the food is thawed the bacteria immediately become active again. Refrigeration of raw or prepared foods also does not kill bacteria. Refrigeration below 40oF (4oC) slows down the growth of bacteria, it does not stop the growth. Foods which have been cooked and are being reheated need to be heated to 165oF (74oC) to kill bacteria present in the food. Controlling bacterial growth through temperature must also include consideration of time. The length of time bacteria are allowed to remain at a temperature suitable for bacteria growth is critical to the success of control. A food item that has remained in the Danger Zone for two hours has had ample time for the growth of bacteria to dangerous levels. The amount of time a food item remains in the Danger Zone must be kept to an absolute minimum and this must include chill-down time.

31 Temperature Danger Zone
41˚F (5˚C) to 140˚F (57˚C) Bacteria needs moisture to survive. Potentially hazardous foods provide the moisture needed. The Water Activity (Aw) level in foods is a factor in determining which foods are potentially hazardous. The Aw of water is 1.0 and potentially hazardous foods generally have an Aw of .85 or above. Food items with an Aw of below .85 are not good hosts for bacteria growth. It is important to remember, that a low Aw only stops growth, it does not kill bacteria. Dried items, such as beans and pastas that are rehydrated in preparation must be treated with the same respect as other prepared foods. Atmosphere, the presence of oxygen is critical to the growth of some bacteria. The majority of bacteria require oxygen to grow. These bacteria are termed aerobic. Minimizing the amount of oxygen available through packaging, such as canning, vacuum packaging, or inert gas packaging can reduce the growth of bacteria. This method of control is far from full proof. There are bacteria, anaerobic, which do not require oxygen to grow and other bacteria, facultative, which can adapt to the atmosphere present and continue to grow. The growth of anaerobic bacteria can be encouraged by tight packaging in foil, PVC film, or a thick fat cover. The control of these bacteria requires proper cooking to kill the bacteria prior to packaging.

32 Cross-Contamination The spread of harmful microorganisms from one surface to another, or to food Can be prevented by proper sanitary practices Example: Possible cross-contamination between chicken and lettuce Isolation of workstations is important when preparing potentially hazardous food

33 Ways to Reduce Cross-Contamination
Primary ways to reduce cross-contamination include: Personal cleanliness Dish, silver, and glassware cleanliness Equipment cleanliness, especially after use Pest management Proper storage and thawing of food

34 Food Safety Facts Danger Zone 41-140 degrees Fahrenheit
Keep hot foods above 140 degrees Fahrenheit Keep Cold foods cold-Must be kept at 41 degrees Fahrenheit or colder All potentially hazardous salads (tuna, potato, macaroni, etc.) must be cooled to 41 degrees Fahrenheit within 4 hours. Riskiest step in food preparation is cooling food. Food must be cooled through danger zone as quickly as possible.

35 Food Safety Facts Continued
Cold foods that are to be reheated need to be heated to 165 degrees as quickly as possible (within 2 hours). Potentially hazardous food may be at room temperature for up to two hours. If you do not know how long food has been out, it should be thrown away.


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