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Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw

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Presentation on theme: "Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw"— Presentation transcript:

1 Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities
Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT and USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID.

2 (From Cronquist, A., et al 1972)
The Great Basin (From Cronquist, A., et al 1972)

3 The Great Basin

4 Impacts – Principal Livestock Grazing Weed Invasion

5 Cheatgrass Fire Cycle

6 Restoration Practicality
Reduction of weedy competition Preparation of suitable seedbeds Restoration of diverse communities Planting site-adapted species Recovery of residual native species

7 Increased Diversity of Plant Communities
* Broader range of organisms. * Cover and soil stabilization. * Forage availability extended. * Improve esthetics. *Higher quality forage. * Supplies critical nutrients and succulence. *Fruits, seeds, and leaves of forbs are frequently a principal food for upland game birds

8 Availability & Utility of Principal Native Species
Shrubs Grasses Forbs

9 Status of Broadleaf Forbs for Restoration
Large number of plant associations Moderate number of species present Few species occupy broad range of sites Individual taxa consist of diverse ecotypes

10 In the Management of Any Land Type It Is Important to Recognize All Sites Support a Particular Array of Species. All plant communities have evolved to support a particular group of compatible species. These species provide the most complete and effective group of plants for the particular landscape, climate, and exist over time.

11 Native forbs offer unique challenges in seed collecting, handling and seeding
Usually hand collected Wildland seed production can be highly erratic Cost and availability are unpredictable Seed handling guidelines have not been developed Seeding requirements and cultural practices have not been developed

12 Principal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt
Principal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt. Brush Communities. Western Yarrow Louisiana sage Pacific aster Blueleaf aster Cicer milkvetch Arrowleaf balsomroot Crownvetch Geranium Utah sweetvetch One flower helianthella Cow Parsnip Ligusticum Lewis flax Lomatium Lupine Alfalfa Yellow sweetclover Sainfoin Sweetanise Penstemon Small burnet Butterweed groundsel Canada goldenrod Globemallow Clover Showy goldeneye

13 Most Commonly Seeded Forbs
Species Pounds purchased in 2000* Alfalfa 126,000 Lewis flax 87,000 Small burnet 65,000 Cicer milkvetch 30,500 Western yarrow 27,000 Yellow Sweetclover 16,550 Sainfoin 10,400 *BLM Purchases in 2000

14 Other Seed Purchased Palmer penstemon 900 Munroe globemallow 250
Species Pounds purchased in 2000* Palmer penstemon 900 Munroe globemallow 250 Gooseberry leaf globemallow 200 *BLM Purchases in 2000

15 Forb species were listed as having potential for rangeland restoration.
Of the 76 forbs species listed, 63 were natives 13 were introduced.

16 Equipment

17 Seed Bed Preparation Soil disturbance Seed coverage
Safe sites for establishment Micro sites for increasing moisture retention

18 Seeding Requirements

19 Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Dry land types are hybrids between the rhizomatous M. falcata (yellow flower) and the deep rooted M. sativa (purple flower). Dry land types adapted to the great basin at >10” (persists best at 12 +) precipitation. Fruit: legume Germination: Very little dormancy. Will germinate with fall moisture and is susceptible to winter kill. Seed as dormant seeding LATE fall or early spring.

20 Small Burnet: (Sanguisorba minor)
Very palatable semi-evergreen, nitrogen fixer, highly nutritious. Cultivar: Delar. Establishes well when seed drilled (at ¼ to ¾ in.), or aerial applied and covered. Establishes well at 12” precipitation does not withstand heavy grazing at dryer sites.

21 Utah Sweetvetch: (Hedysarum boreal)
Palatable legume, deep rooted, occurring in sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush types. Cultivar: Timp. Seed: Has a lomented pod that disarticulates at ripening. 34,000 seeds per pound. Fall seed, some dormancy requiring 1 month stratification. Seed at ½ in., 2 lbs per acre.

22 Cicer Milkvetch: (Astragalus cicer)
Adapted to upper sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush (>14”). Good forage and seed producer. Bird and small mammals utilize the seed. Released varieties: Lutana, Monarch. Sainfoin: (Onobrychis viciafolia) Non-bloating legume, adapted to >12 inches precipitation. Highly palatable and nutritious, is preferred by deer, elk, and sage grouse. Seed: 18,000 seeds per lb. Seed at 2 to 5 lbs per acre in mix. Released varieties: Eski, Remont.

23 Western Yarrow (Achillia millifolium)
Cultivar: Variety from Eagle Id. Will be released soon Wide distribution Used by hens and chicks, harbors insects. Very small seed- 4 million per pound. Surface seed in the Fall, 0.25 to 1 lb per acre. Establishes readily.

24 Pacific Aster: (Aster chilensis)
Asters as a group are an important component to the native communities. Consist of a broad array of species. Small seeded 2.5 million seeds per pound. Requires 2-4 week stratification Balsamroot:(Balsamoriza spp.) Wide spread in Intermountain area. Early spring green up, good wildlife forage. Large seeds, 55,000 per pound. Slow to establish, but very persistent.

25 Showy Goldeneye: (Viguiera multifora, V. nevadensis.)
V. multiflora- broadly adapted to many vegetative types. When purchasing seed be sure of the source. Ranges from Sage, p/j to sub alpine. V. nevadensis- occurs in drier sites in the Great Basin. Small seeded 1 million per pound. Does well on surface, can be drilled. Good seed producer with strong seedlings. Early spring green up. Readily sought out by wildlife as a herbaceous forage, and seed is utilized by birds.

26 Hawksbeard: (Crepis spp. ) Fleabane: (Erigeron spp
Hawksbeard: (Crepis spp.) Fleabane: (Erigeron spp.) Salsify: (Tragopogon spp.) Seed: Generally small seeded, but do establish well on disturbed sites. Little information on seed and seeding requirements. No current releases The importance of these species to sage grouse and other wildlife is becoming more understood.

27 Forbs Broadleaf Forbs Family Genus Common name .
Apiaceae Lomatium Desert parsley Linaceae Linum Flax Malvaceae Sphaeralcea Globemallow Polygonaceae Eriogonum Desert Buckwheat Scrophulariaceae Penstemon Penstemon

28 Forb Releases Species Origin Release Class
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Eriogonum niveum SD Umatilla Cultivar E. umbellatum CA Sierra Cultivar Linum perenne SD Appar Cultivar (escaped?) Lomatium spp Penstemon eatonii UT Richfield Selected P. palmeri UT Cedar Cultivar P. strictus NM Bandera Cultivar P. venustus ID Clearwater Selected Sphaeralcea coccinea ID ARS Germplasm S. munroana UT ARS Selected

29 Seed Quality Testing Species Germination Rule Viability Test
Eriogonum X Linum X L. perenne X Lomatium Penstemon X X P. eatonii X P. palmeri X P. strictus X P. venustus X Sphaeralcea X S. coccinea S. munroana

30 Family Linaceae Linum perenne var. ’Appar’ Perennial Blue Flax
Widely adapted Produced in seed fields Easily seeded Establishes in mixtures

31 Linum lewisii Lewis flax, Wild blue flax
Widely distributed Considerable intraspecific variation Great Basin cultivar being developed

32 Family: Polygonaceae Eriogonum spp. , Wild buckwheat
E. heracleoides Wyeth buckwheat E. ovalifolium Oval-leaf buckwheat E. niveum Snow buckwheat E. umbellatum Sulfurflower buckwheat

33 Eriogonum: Seed Inflorescence: Umbel Fruit: 3-angled achene
Seeds/pound: 120,000 (E. umbellatum) 600,000 (E. niveum) Harvest: Summer - Fall Cleaning: Screen, chop, screen Seed quality: Viability test available. Germination: Species and ecotypic variation occur.

34 Eriogonum: Seeding Time: Fall. Method: Drill (shallow), broadcast.
Germination: Prechilling usually required. Seedlings/stand: Pioneering species.

35 ‘Umatilla’ Snow Buckwheat Eriogonum niveum
Origin: Umatilla Co., Oregon Area of use: Interior Pacific Northwest.

36 Family Apiaceae Lomatium spp. , Biscuitroot, Wild parsley
70 species, nearly all in Western U.S. Lower elevation sagebrush to subalpine Early spring growth Plants usually scattered

37 Lomatium spp.: Seeds and Seeding
Seed supply unreliable Hand harvested Fruits flat, winged, easily cleaned and seeded Seedlings vigorous No cultivars, germination test or viability procedure L. triternatum Nine-leaved biscuitroot

38 Family Malvaceae Sphaeralcea spp., Globemallow
25 species in the West, most common in the Southwest 8-12 inch precipitation zone Establishes during wet years, persists in seedbank Several ploidy levels occur One of the few forbs seeded in salt desert shrublands S. munroana Munro globemallow S. grossulariifolia Gooseberryleaf globemallow

39 Sphaeralcea spp.: Seeds and Seeding
Flowering indeterminate Seed collected by hand 500,000 seeds per pound Drill seed or broadcast and cover Seeds require scarification and prechilling Germplasm releases: ARS-2936 S. coccinea ARS-2892 S. munroana No germination or viability test S. munroana Munro globemallow

40 Family Scrophulariaceae Penstemon spp., Penstemon
P. speciosus P. deustus P. peckii P. fruticosus

41 Penstemon: Seed Harvested from native stands or seed fields
Seed small (100,000 to 600,000 per pound) Seed easily cleaned and handled Longevity of seed in dry storage: 4 to 6 years Field culture and seed production studied

42 Penstemon: Seeding Fall seeding -prechilling often required
Drill (shallow) or broadcast and cover Can be seeded with other small seeded forbs and shrubs Matures fairly rapidly Germination rule and TZ procedures available.

43 Penstemon: Releases Scientific Common Release Release
name name Origin name type . P. eatonii Firecracker UT Richfield Selected P. palmeri Palmer UT Cedar Cultivar P. strictus Rocky Mt. NM Bandera Cultivar P. venustus Alpine ID Clearwater Selected

44 The Pre-variety Germplasm Release Program A “Fast Track” Alternative Release Procedure
Certification type: Site-Identified Verified for geographic origin. No comparisons made with other germplasms of the species. Selected Class Germplasm compared on a common site with other germplasms. Tested Class Progeny tested to ensure that observed traits are heritable and stable. Cultivar/Variety Tested material for which there is considerable market demand.

45 Research Requirements
Plant ecology Ecotypic variability and distribution Plant biology Seed characteristics, germination requirements Seedbed ecology and establishment Field culture and seed production Forb genetics Revegetation genetics

46 Candidate Species Identification and ranking of important species
Field surveys Distribution Wildlife habitat values Summary list

47 Species Proposed for Development
Astragalus convallarius A. lentiginosus Crepis acuminata Erigeron pumilus Eriogonum corymbosum E. ovalifolium Hedysarum borealis utahensis Lomatium nuttallii Lupinus argenteus Penstemon attenuatus P. deustus P. speciosus Sphaeralcea coccinea Vicia americana Viguiera multiflora nevadensis

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