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Alternative Aviation Fuels

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Presentation on theme: "Alternative Aviation Fuels"— Presentation transcript:

1 Alternative Aviation Fuels
Tim Edwards Propulsion Directorate 88ABW

2 DoD Fuel Costs DoD Fuel Costs Are Volatile And Have Risen Dramatically
Air Force Army Navy Total Fuel – Gallons (1) 2.5B 0.3B 1.8B 4.6B Fuel – Cost $10.2B $1.2B $7.3B $18.7B $4.0 $3.5 n $3.0 DoD Fuel Costs Are Volatile And Have Risen Dramatically o l l a +354% G $2.5 r e p e $2.0 c i r P 8 $1.5 DoD fuel costs have risen by 354% from 2004 to Jul This enormous cost burden, as well as the need to reduce our Nation’s reliance on foreign energy supplies, creates a mandate for VAATE to develop new technologies which will provide more fuel efficient engines. - P J $1.0 $0.5 $0.0 9 7 9 8 9 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 (1) Compiled from the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency DESC – Defense Energy Support Center Data DESC (Jul 2008) adjustment to $4.07/ Gallon 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 c t n c t b n c u l O J u O e e F J u D J APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, AFRL-WS 4 2

3 Economic Sustainability
Energy Strategy Economic Sustainability Need to Consider Inter-related Consequences of Energy Strategies Aim for Balanced Solutions Energy Supply Security Climate Change Tim Skone DOE/NETL 2008 RZ

4 U.S. Air Force Energy Approach
Vision: Make Energy A Consideration In All We Do Strategy: Reduce Demand Increase Supply Change the Culture Air Force Energy Vision: Make energy a consideration in all we do. Air Force has the following three-part energy strategy: Reduce Demand: The Air Force is committed to increasing our energy efficiency and awareness of the need to reduce our energy consumption Increase Supply: The Air Force is committed to research, testing and certifying new technologies, as well as renewable and sustainable resources in order to create new domestic sources of supply Cultural Change: We are creating a culture where all Airmen make energy a consideration in everything we do. This strategy balances demand-side energy efficiency measures with a long-term commitment to supply-side alternative energy sources

5 U.S. Air Force 2007 Energy Use $7 billion spent for energy in 2007
AVIATION Fuel Used: 2.5B gallons Fuel Cost: $5.6B FACILITIES Energy Used: 71.2M MMBTU Energy Costs: $1.1B GROUND EQUIPMENT AND VEHICLES Fuel Used: M gallons Fuel Costs: $302.3M Aviation 81% Facilities 15% Source: DESC FY07 Cost Data, AFTOC, Fuels Enterprise System & Defense Utility Reporting System, and VEMSO fuel reporting system Total Energy Expenses – $6.98B (Actual $6,983,855,593) BREAKDOWN Aviation – 81% of total energy expenses $5.6B (Actual: $5,621,484,003) 2.5B gal of fuel (Actual: 2,509,021,770) Facilities – 15% of total energy expenses $1.1B (Actual: $1,060,082,000) Ground Vehicles – 4% of total energy expenses 138.4M gal (Actual 138,379,808 gal; 3.3M barrels) $ 302.3M (Actual $302,289,590) Sources: As listed in slide. Facility data included in USAF input to DoD Annual Energy Report to DOE. Ground Equipment 4%

6 CAAFI’s Member / Contributors ….150 Contributors from 4 Continents
Aircraft Engine OEMs Aircraft OEMs Aircraft Equip Cos Universities Think Tanks Consultants Sponsors Air Transport Association Airlines ALPA Air Cargo Airport Operators NetJets FAA ATA AIA ACI CAAFI Aerospace Industries Association UK MoD Bauhaus NRC Canada ANP Brazil Airports Council International Federal Aviation Administration Oil Companies Energy Companies ASTM CRC Bio-Fuels Companies DOC DOE USDA USAF USN DARPA US Army DESC NIST NASA ….150 Contributors from 4 Continents The CAAFI Coalition seeks energy security and environmental sustainability for aviation, … to promote the development of alternative fuel options that offer equivalent levels of safety and compare favorably with petroleum based jet fuel on cost and environmental bases, with the specific goal of enhancing security of energy supply

7 Alternatives to Oil: US Energy Resources
Oil Shale Coal CO2 Sequestration) Domestic Resources 1.4 trillion barrels (shale) 900 billion barrels of FT (coal) 0.15 billion barrels (pet coke) 22.7 billion barrels oil reserves 240 billion barrels of oil (EOR) 100 million pounds of pulp waste/year Total 2.3+ trillion barrels equivalent The US has vast unconventional resources to produce fuels The production of these fossil resources with the capture of CO2 for use in enhanced oil recovery would increase national security, provide domestic jobs and the associated wealth from the resource Shale and coal are the most abundant resources in the US

8 First Generation Alternative Fuels
Mature Process: Fischer Tropsch is a proven process with benefits including: Maturity: South African aviation use 1999 CTL – South Africa, China GTL – Malaysia, Middle East BTL -- Germany Chemical similarities to conventional fuels Manufactured fuel No sulfur Reduced particulates High/Low temperature stability Fischer-Tropsch Technology Natural Gas Coal Pet Coke Biomass Wastes Synthesis Gas Production Oxygen Plant Air O 2 F-T Liquid Synthesis Product Recovery Fuels Transportation Tail Gas Power Generation H Hydrogen Wax Hydrocracking Separation An Option CO H2 Co Capture and Reuse

9 Fuels From Alternate Sources
We Could Be the New Middle East 2.3+ Trillion Barrels Old Middle East Domestic Sources Coal and Shale Saudi Arabia: Billion Barrels Iraq: Billion Barrels UAE: 97.8 Billion Barrels Kuwait: 96.5 Billion Barrels Iran: 89.7 Billion Barrels Qatar: 15.2 Billion Barrels Oman: 5.5 Billion Barrels Yemen: 4.0 Billion Barrels Syria: 2.5 Billion Barrels Appalachian States 0.9+ T Bbls Western States 1.4+ T Bbls TOTAL: T Bbls Indiana Coal: 20B Bbls TOTAL Billion Barrels TOTAL T Bbls Equivalent

10 Value Added Choices For Coal
A choice to make: Electric Power Production Products Value 2 MWh electricity $70.00 Total $70.00 Combustion Gasification FT Fuels and Power Products Value 0.41MWh electricity $14.00 0.34 bbls naphtha $15.00 1.36 bbls jet fuel $81.00 Total $110.00 1 ton of Il. Coal $32/ton Gasification Gasification Fertilizer, FT Fuels and Electric Power Products Value 0.07 MWh electricity $ 0.23 0.17 bbls naphtha $ 8.00 0.78 bbls jet fuel $46.50 0.25 tons of ammonia $87.00 Total $141.73 Projected Numbers RenTech 2006

11 Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch
Franz Fisher Hans Tropsch

12 Converting Coal to Liquid Fuel

13 Sasol Secunda South Africa

14 B-52 Certified for 50/50 Blend!
8 Aug 2007 B-52 flight test at Edwards AFB was successful and widely reported in the press. This was only the first step to achieving the AF Secretary’s goal of certifying the entire fleet by 2010.

15 Alternative Fuels Certification Office Certification Process Execution
MIL-HDBK-510 – used for fuel approval Specification – used for fuel procurement Process Owner Coordinates Single Managers Execute Single Managers Knowledge Gaps Sustaining Engineering Fills Gaps Evaluation/ Risk Analysis Tech Data Handbook Identify Gaps (System/Class) Fuel Approved “Unrestricted” No Gaps – Performs “Like” JP-8 Fuel Approved “Restricted” Fuel Approved “Unrestricted” Fuel Rejected Process owner: ASC Coordinates gap analysis Coordinates sustaining engineering Ensures data flow between SMs Updates MIL-Handbook with lessons learned Revise Specification (if req’d) B-52/C-17 approach consistent with this process

16 Current USAF Perspective
Early 2011 Certification Goal Certify entire AF Fleet to use a 50/50 SynFuel blend 2016 Acquisition Goal Acquire 50% of CONUS aviation fuels from domestically produced synthetic fuel-blends from sources using CO2 capture and reuse B-52 flew in Sep & Dec 06 on synfuel blend – no difference in operations. The B-52 will be fully certified to fly on the synthetic fuel-blend by July 07 Building on this in-depth testing program to efficiently certify the remainder of the fleet by 2010; C-17s, B-1s, augmenters/afterburners beginning fall 07 Gulfstream is working to certify the C-20 This fuel burns hotter & cleaner; should improve aircraft performance & engine maintenance 50/50 blend has less sulfur dioxide & particulate emissions – environ. plus The AF Fleet will be ready to buy domestically produced synthetic fuel-blends anytime after 2010 with a goal of 50% of CONUS aviation fuel as a synfuel blend being purchased by DLA by 2016 Mixed biomass feedstock with coal & carbon capture/reuse = “Green Coal” The Air Force certifies alternative fuels through a systematic rigorous certification process Whether it be coal, natural gas using the Fischer-Tropshe process or refining oil from oil shale, the Air Force is committed to certifying viable fuel alternatives We are aware of the carbon management issues and appreciate the hard work in CO2 sequestration, but we are not the experts in this area But we are in the business of providing options in terms of alternative fuels use while being good stewards of the environment We’re hopeful about the possibilities of biomass and coal and challenge this community to continue to research and develop alternative fuels If you make it, we will rigorously test it, and certify it and if it meets our requirements, buy it in the future. AF Developing Biofuel Strategy

17 Alternative Fuels Certification Office FT-Blend Summary Certification Schedule/Status
FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 B-52 Today B-1 B-2 Engine Test Cert Complete Flight Complete C-17 KC-135 All Transports F-15 F-16 F-22 All Fighter/ Attack Excludes F-35 Trainers Heli /Special Excludes CV-22 GSE / ESOH / Infrastructure All USAF Systems NOTIONAL Gap Analysis Cert. Completion FSE

18 AFRL Major Thrusts High level goals:
2011 – 50/50 F-T blend certification for all systems (Alternative Fuel Certification Office (AFCO)) 2016 – 50% of domestic consumption contains synthetics (F-T + ?) (~400M gal), “greener” than petroleum, cost-competitive AFRL major efforts (joint w/ AFPET) (coord w/ CAAFI) F-T certification support (properties, mat’l compatibility, toxicology) Aviation biofuel certification Key parameters Performance (“drop-in”) Cost (“competitive”) Production potential (“significant”) Lifecycle greenhouse gas footprint (“less than petroleum”) Sustainability (“?”)

19 Timeline Summary Near-Term Strategy Longer-Term Strategy July Aug Sept
FT ASTM Research Rpt Issued Draft FT ASTM Research Rpt FT ASTM Research Rpt OEM App’l FT ASTM Research Rpt ASTM Ballot FT Fuel Spec ASTM Ballot ASTM Approval of Spec and Research Rpt Sept Oct Nov Dec 2008 Longer-Term Strategy HRJ Task Force 2008 2009 2010 2012 2011 2013 DXXXX Spec Wrkg Grp HRJ ASTM Research Rpt Issued DARPA Fuel Samples at WPAFB DXXXX Spec Ballot HRJ xx% Blend ASTM App’l HRJ ASTM App’l ASTM Synthetic Fuels Task Force Federal Aviation Administration 19 19 December 8, 2008 Mark Rumizen, CAAFI

20 Certification “Pipeline”
incubator Fuels may travel along conveyor at different rates! AF energy security goals benefit by feedstock diversity Potential alternative fuels New! DESC Solicitation SP R K gal DARPA moving fast, “drafting” F-T SPK ? 100% F-T 100% bio non-HRJ bio HRJ 50/50 TRL 1 R&D TRL 5-6 New! ASTM D7566 TRL 9 Certification F-T SPK 50/50 Jet A/A-1 Sasol FSJF ‘08 Sasol SSJF ‘99 Approved fuels (ASTM D7566, MIL-DTL-83133F) JP-8/5

21 Aviation Alternative fuels must have a life cycle greenhouse gas footprint equal or less than petroleum (Sect 526 EISA 2007) FAA Partner Studies MIT Partner Study

22 U.S. Air Force Greenhouse Gas Inventory Initiative
2007 CO2 Emissions (million metric tons) Aviation Operations 23.98 Facility Electricity and Steam 6.93 Stationary Fuel Combustion 2.37 Ground Transportation and Equipment 1.12 TOTAL 34.40 Voluntary carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory used to: Evaluate policy and operational impacts Support sustainability Identify risk areas Understand investment and mitigation areas CO2 inventory paves way for change

23 Representative Results
Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Results - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008) Baseline Emissions Representative Results Air Force Leading a Multi-Agency/University LCA Analysis Team

24 Assessed potential for carbon neutral growth from 2006 to 2025.
Potential for Renewable Fuels - H.M. Wong S.M. Thesis (2008)5 Carbon Neutral U.S. Aviation Growth Assessed potential for carbon neutral growth from 2006 to 2025. Analysis used biofuel life-cycle GHG emissions and yield per hectare. Circles show land area requirements for three existing and two hypothetical feedstocks. Soybean and palm requirements both exceed current production levels. Analysis looked at single feedstock solutions – practical approach is to consider multiple feedstock solutions. Need feedstocks with high yield and low life-cycle emissions that do not require arable land. Notes: 1. Assumed no land use change emissions with all of the feedstocks. 2. Land areas are given relative to continental U.S. for illustrative purposes (e.g., palm trees do not grow in Colorado). Jim Hileman MIT

25 Sustainability Need to develop an aviation consensus view
Environmental sustainability Water usage Water pollution Local air quality Global air quality Land use changes Business sustainability Aviation sector performance is closely linked to fuel costs

26 Land use change scenarios:
Quantifying Well-to-Wake Benefits - Hileman et al. (2008)5 Assessing Uncertainties Uncertainties: Feedstock variation Process efficiency Carbon capture efficiency Land use change scenarios: Use Marginal Land or Waste Product Conversion of Brazilian Cerrado Wide-Spread Agricultural Changes Destruction of Peatland Rain Forest Jim Hileman MIT

27 How Does the Cost of Carbon Effect the Price of Fossil/Bio Fuels?
Tim Skone DOE/NETL

28 AF Alternative Fuel Score Card
Economic Readiness Business $1.00 Med Med Med

29 Summary Alternative fuels offer potential to reduce green house gases and particulate emissions Air Force will certify its entire fleet by 2011 to use a 50/50 blend of FT fuels FT fuels can be produced from coal, biomass, natural gas as well as coal and biomass Sect 526 EISA 2007 governs DoD purchases of alternative fuels Coal derived FT fuels could be produced with a CO2 footprint equal to or less than petroleum Developing assessment “rules and tools” to compare alternative fuels

30 Aviation Biofuel Production Options
“second generation” - ? “first generation” - ? Cellulose C16:1 C18:0 Triglycerides (fats, oils) pyrolysis oil gasification (or co-gasification with coal) “HRJ” “Bio SPK” Lignin hydroprocessing 2 Fischer-Tropsch “BTL” CO + H2 1 alcohols catalysis Sugars jet fuel components “direct fermentation”

31 Certification Processes – MIL-HDBK-510, ASTM D4054
which rigs? which engines?

32 Fit-for-Purpose Test Results (for Research Report)
Completed on multiple samples In progress Planned FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES CHEMISTRY Hydrocarbon chemistry (carbon number, type, distribution) Trace Materials/Metals BULK PHYSICAL AND PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES Boiling Pt Distribution Vapor/Liquid Ratio Thermal Stability Breakpoint Lubricity Response to Lube Improver Viscosity vs Temp Specific Heat vs Temp Density vs Temp Surface Tension vs Temp Bulk Modulus vs Temp Thermal Conductivity vs Temp Water Solubility vs Temp Solubility of Air (oxygen/nitrogen) FIT-FOR-PURPOSE PROPERTIES ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES Dielectric Constant vs Density Electrical Conductivity and Response to Static Dissapator GROUND HANDLING/SAFETY Effect on Clay Filtration Fitration (Coalescers & monitors) Storage Stability Peroxides Potential Gum Toxicity Flammability Limits Autoignition Temperature Hot Surface Ignition Temp COMPATIBILITY Other Additives/Fuels Engine/Airframe Seals, Coatings, Metallics

33 Research Reports Used to support commercial specifications (data also used for military certification) Addresses whether “drop-in” fuels fall within experience base

34 Experience Base World Fuel Survey PQIS database Newly developed data

35 ASTM D7566 Fuel Specification
Key Provisions Body of Spec Applies to Finished Semi-Synthetic Fuel Annex for Each Class of Synthetic Blending Component Allow Re-Certification to D1655 No need for separate tracking Annex 1 Hydroprocessed SPK Includes 50% FT Fuel Issued in August 2009 Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Added to Annex 1 in Next Revision 5.1 Materials and Manufacture D1655 Table 1 Fuel Produced to D7566 Can Be Designated as D1655 Fuel D7566 Av Turbine Fuel Containing Syn HC’s Table 1 Blended Fuel Performance Properties Blend Comp’s Criteria and Blend % Limits Annex 3 Other Adv Fuels or Processes Annex 2 Annex 1 50% Hydpross’d SPK Fuel Blends

36 Baseline Fischer-Tropsch Fuels
Form basis of Research Report to support specification C-5, C-130, A-10, F-16 C-17, B-1, F-15 F-22, KC-135R Cetane = 31 B-52, T-38 Cetane=60 n-paraffins Cetane=60 36

37 Alternative Fuels On-Going Analysis
TRL 9 –current fuels JP-8, Jet A 4751 JP - 8 -- > 5 10 15 20 25 30 F-T SPK (blend stock) TRL 8 – generic F-T 50/50 HRJ - hydrotreated fats/oils (blend stock) C C 9 10 C 11 C 12 C TRL 5 (?) – HRJ 50/50 (flight demonstrated) C 13 C C 8 14 15 C C 7 16 C 17 C C 18 19 TRL 2 More Challenging Biofuels 5 10 15 20 25 30 TRL 2-3 Time -- > 5 10 15 20 25 30

38 Combustion Evaluation
Composition Aromatics, cycloparaffins, n- and i-paraffins Hydrocarbon chain length Combustion Performance Properties Lean blow out Altitude relight Transient accel/decel Instability Emissions/efficiency Liner/nozzle heating Engine control response Density vs T Viscosity vs T Flash point Heat of combustion Boiling range Vapor pressure Surface tension Cetane

39 Prototype Combustion Evaluation Process
Fundamental expts fail pass Flame tube rigs Sector rigs Full annular H: FA D P: FA D G: FA D W: FA D R: FA D Engines

40 “Biocarbon” Analysis ASTM D6866 assesses fraction of carbon that is “modern” using C14 Initial assessment Fuel WPAFB JP-8 Sasol IPK Shell SPK Syntroleum R-8 R-8X JP-8/R-8 50/50 UOP DARPA “biojet” Feedstock petroleum coal nat. gas fat/oil Salicornia blend bio + pet. aromatics % modern C 96 100 49 73

41 Summary Interest in alternative fuels remains high
Biomass-derived fuels are current S&T focus “Drop-in” petroleum replacements/blendstocks are focus in near term – fully synthetic in mid term Assessment criteria must be defined: performance, cost, manufacturing potential, GHG footprint, sustainability Biofuels may not always be “greener” than petroleum or CBTL (w/CCS) Scale-up/cost/land use issues

42 SECNAV Energy Goals At the Naval Energy Forum, the Honorable Ray Mabus expressed support for President Obama’s goal to reduce consumption of fuel and water and reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. He announced five DON Energy Goals: New Requirements for Acquisition Processes Mandatory evaluation factors used when awarding contracts for platforms, weapon systems, and buildings will include: Lifecycle energy costs Fully-burdened cost of fuel Contractor energy footprint Sail the “Great Green Fleet” DON will demonstrate a Green Strike Group in local operations by 2012 and sail it by 2016 Nuclear ships Surface combatants using biofuels with hybrid electric power systems Aircraft flying on biofuels Reduce Petroleum Use in Non-Tactical Vehicles By 2015, DON will reduce petroleum use in the commercial fleet by 50 percent Flex fuel vehicles Hybrid electric vehicles Neighborhood electric vehicles Increase Alternative Energy Ashore By 2020, DON will produce at least 50 percent of shore-based energy requirements from alternative sources Solar, Wind, Ocean, Geothermal Increase Alternative Energy Use Navy-wide By 2020, 50 percent of total DON energy consumption will come from alternative sources

43 dehydration, oligomerization, hydroprocessing “direct fermentation”
What’s Next After HRJ? Fully synthetic fuels (cycloparaffins, aromatics for density, seal swell) Need to access non-fat/oil feedstocks Fermentation (w/ microorganisms) to alcohols, conversion to hydrocarbons (or direct) Initially using sugar, ultimate goal is cellulosic Pyrolysis of ligno-cellulosics dehydration, oligomerization, hydroprocessing fermentation jet fuels, components sugars alcohols “direct fermentation” stabilization, hydroprocessing jet fuels, components biomass “pyrolysis oil”

44 Gevo Public Data Fermentation to isobutanol, followed by dehydration/ oligomerization/hydroprocessing

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