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Introduction, History, The Six Psychological Perspectives.

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1 Introduction, History, The Six Psychological Perspectives

2 Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. –Uses scientific research methods. –Behavior includes all observable behavior. –Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.

3 Modern Psychology’s Roots

4 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) “father of psychology” founder of modern psychology opened the first psychology lab in 1879

5 E.B. Titchener founder of structuralism (1 st perspective) goal: understand the structure of conscious experience by analyzing its parts

6 Structuralism studied the basic elements (structure) of conscious experience

7 Gestalt Psychology the whole (conscious experience) is different from the sum of its parts. integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

8 William James first American psychologist author of the first psychology textbook founder of Functionalism

9 Functionalism study the functions of consciousness: how consciousness helped people adapt to their environment

10 Sigmund Freud founder of psychoanalytic perspective (personality) abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and childhood conflicts used personal observation & reflection instead of controlled lab experiments

11 Freud’s Influence (don’t have to write this, just f.y.i.) Influence on “pop culture” –freudian slips –anal-retentive Influence on psychology: –psychodynamic theory – modern version of Freud’s ideas –importance of unconscious thoughts –significance of childhood experiences

12 Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist studied learning in animals created an interest in the study of observable behaviors

13 John B. Watson founder of behaviorism studied only observable and objectively describable acts emphasized objective and scientific methods

14 B.F. Skinner Behaviorist Focused on learning through rewards and observation

15 Humanistic Psychology focus on conscious experience and individual’s free will healthy individuals strive to reach their potential humans are not solely controlled by rewards and reinforcements

16 Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

17 What’s a perspective? Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “schools of thought” Also called “psychological approaches” Don’t write this bullet: Example – Whether you help a student who has dropped their books in the hall. Why do some help when others don’t?

18 6 Contemporary Psychological Perspectives PerspectiveFocusBehavior is Explained by… Cognitive Biological Social-Cultural Behavioral Humanistic Psychodynamic

19 Cognitive Perspective Focus: how people think and process information Don’t write this bullet, just think about it (Forerunners – Structuralism, Functionalism, & Gestalt Psychology) behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation

20 Biological Perspective Focus: how our biological structures and substances might cause a given behavior, thought, or emotion behavior is explained by brain chemistry & structure, genetics, hormones, glands, etc.

21 Social-Cultural Perspective Focus: how thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation behavior is explained by the influence of other people present *review

22 Behavioral Perspective Focus: how we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation behavior is explained by previous learning

23 Humanistic Perspective Focus: how healthy people strive to reach their full potential behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential after basic needs are met.

24 Psychodynamic Perspective Focus: how behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Freud’s ideas)

25 Psych Perspectives Group Activity Scenario: Fight Breaks out in the Cafeteria Task: Explain how each of the 6 Contemporary Psychological Perspectives would explain the aggressive behavior

26 Psych Perspectives: Self-Assessment Think about it…Now that you understand each of the Six Contemporary Psych Perspectives, with which one/s do you most identify? Task: Write your name on each of your post-it notes and stick them on the perspective/s you feel are most accurate.

27 Careers in Psychology What do psychologists do?

28 Basic Research research that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base research for the sake of finding new information

29 Applied Research Aims to solve specific, practical problems rather than expanding the scientific knowledge base

30 Clinical Psychologist Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems Largest number of professional psychologists



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