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Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry.

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Presentation on theme: "Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transformational Leadership: Understanding the Knowledge and Applying the Concepts West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership Institute November, 2008 Jerry Valentine

2 Our Process Today Background perspective: Transactional and Transformational Leadership Small group activity: Famous Personalities (Transactional or Transformational) Current perspective: Transformational Leadership Functions and Practices

3 James McGregor Burns Leadership (1978) seminal book conceptualized transformational leadership Explains and contrasts leadership as –transactional or –transformational

4 Burns: Transactional Leadership is initiated solely by the formal leader is based upon the exchange of valued goods between the leader and followers is based on tangible (money, resources) or intangible (time, recognition, praise, etc.) goods is not based on an enduring relationship; therefore both parties go their separate ways is based on a shrewd eye for opportunity, a good hand at bargaining, persuading, and reciprocating uses extrinsic motivation

5 Burns: Transformational Leadership is initiated by the leader is based on mutual reciprocal relationship elevates both leader and followers to higher levels of motivation and morality promotes high levels of conduct and ethical aspirations uses intrinsic motivation

6 Burns: Transactional and Transformational Leadership Compared Transactional… –is based upon the fulfillment of lower-order needs, such as psychological well-being and safety –is based upon model of punishment, deference to authority, conformity, and social convention Transformational… –is based upon the fulfillment of higher-order needs, such as self- esteem, self-actualization –is based upon a model of principled morality –is grounded in the needs and values of both leaders and followers –provides the opportunity over time followers have the potential to be changed (transformed) into leaders themselves –is a mechanism for the authentic empowerment of followers

7 Scenario A Principal: Janie Jones In the spring the new principal must address, for the first time, the assignment of teachers to specific classes and/or grade levels for the coming year. Principal Jones studies the course (or grade level) assignments for a couple of weeks and then posts them on the schedule board in the faculty lounge. She then calls each teacher into her office for a private conversation with the intent to convince the teacher that her respective assignment is the best for the school. For the few teachers who complain, Principal Jones offers incentives (e.g. released time) to convince the teacher that the assignment is appropriate.

8 Scenario B Principal: Tom Thomas Principal Thomas really wants to improve the schools mathematics achievement scores on the state test. He calls a special faculty meeting in September to discuss his vision for the math program. Principal Thomas shares with the faculty a PPT presentation describing in detail the school math achievement data and explaining why the math program must change. When he asks for teacher volunteers from all content (or grade levels) to serve on a task-force to design a plan to reach the vision, no teachers volunteer. Principal Thomas decides on the spot that the only way to move forward is to assign the task-force members, so he indicates that he will make those assignments next Monday if he does not have six volunteers between today and Monday. Principal Thomas concludes the meeting by saying that he believes those who step up and serve will truly become key leaders in the school over the next two or three years because of the impact they will make on the schools achievement scores.

9 Bernard Bass: Transformational Leadership (1980s/1990s) Proposed a four-factor definition of TL: –Idealized Influence (serves as a role model) –Inspirational Motivation (provides meaning and challenge to followers; vision/goals) –Intellectual Stimulation (solicits and encourages ideas, challenges assumptions) –Individualized Consideration (coach and mentor followers; personnel growth and development)

10 Leithwoods 1996 Six Factor Model of Transformational Leadership Provides Vision Models Behavior Fosters Commitment Provides Individual Support Provides Intellectual Stimulation Holds High Performance Expectations

11 Leithwoods 2006 Model of Leadership Four Primary functions of Leadership –Setting Direction –Developing People –Redesigning the Organization –Managing the Instructional (Teaching/Learning) Program

12 Famous Leaders (generally considered Transformational) What Makes them Transformational? In your group, decide: WHY Transformational

13 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Moses –Was hidden by mother as a baby to avoid being killed and raised by Egyptian royal family –Killed a slave-master and fled to country –Became shepherd and told by God to deliver the Hebrews from slavery –Led Hebrews on a 40-year journey –Given the Ten Commandments tablets as rules for Hebrew people –Died before reaching the promised land (Israel)

14 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Walt Disney –Founder of Disneyland, etc. –Set culture of excellence, right down to the way the park sidewalks were cleaned –Set culture of caring for customers and ensuring customer had a great time –Set expectation of staying in character regardless of what happens in the park

15 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Sam Walton…founder and CEO Wal-Mart –Consistently visited stores and his employees –Established high expectations for quality at unbeatable prices –Created a culture of commitment –Made fortune by designing unique distribution process to maintain merchandise supply at low overhead

16 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Mohandas Gandhi Sir Winston Churchill

17 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? John F. Kennedy Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

18 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Mother Teresa of CalcuttaRosa Parks

19 Transactional or Transformational? Why??? Michael JordanGeneral George Patton III

20 Principal Leadership Questionnaire The following slides provide examples of principal behavior from the Principal Leadership Questionnaire developed by Jantzi and Leithwood, 1996. View it at Or

21 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Visioning –Excites faculty with visions of what we may be able to accomplish if we work together as a team. –Makes faculty members feel and act like leaders. –Gives the faculty a sense of overall purpose for its leadership role.

22 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Models Behavior Leads by doing rather than simply by telling. Exemplifies success and accomplishment within the profession of education.

23 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Fosters Commitment –Provides for participation in the process of developing school goals. –Encourages faculty members to work toward the same goals. –Uses problem solving with the faculty to generate school goals. –Works toward whole faculty consensus in establishing priorities for school goals. –Regularly encourages faculty members to evaluate progress toward achievement of school goals.

24 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Provides Individualized Support –Provides for extended training to develop teachers knowledge and skills relevant to being a member of the school faculty. –Provides the necessary resources to support implementation of the schools program. –Treats me as an individual with unique needs and expertise. –Takes my opinion into consideration when initiating actions that affect my work. –Behaves in a manner thoughtful of my personal needs.

25 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Provides Intellectual Stimulation –Challenged me to reexamine some basic assumptions I have about my work in the school. –Stimulates me to think about what I am doing for the schools students. –Provides information that helps me think of ways to implement the schools program.

26 Examples of Transformational Principal Behaviors Holds High Expectations –Insists on only the best performance from the schools faculty. –Shows us that there are high expectations for the schools faculty as professionals. –Does not settle for second best in the performance of our work as the schools faculty.

27 Movies and Leadership Name a movie where the main character is a leader has a vision and who must accomplish certain goals by involving followers. What were the leadership characteristics of that leader…transactional or transformational?

28 Synthesis: The Big Picture What are the key concepts we should take with us from our discussion of Transformational Leadership? and What are basic leadership competencies or behaviors exhibited by a transformational leader?

29 Scenario C: Principal Carrie Care Principal Care recently learned about the importance of school culture at the states leadership institute and led a discussion with her faculty about what a caring, collaborative culture looks like in a highly successful school and provided a reading and encouraged her teachers to read and discuss the reading in the professional groups. She obtained permission to use a culture instrument and asked teachers to complete the 36-item survey and return their responses to the school secretary by the end of the week. 32 of the 56 teachers returned completed surveys by Friday afternoon. Over the weekend, Principal Care sent an email to all teachers. She indicated that she did not know who had or had not responded since the survey was anonymous, but reiterated the importance of the facultys upcoming analysis of the schools culture and encouraged those who might not have responded to take time to respond before next Wednesdays faculty meeting discussion. By the Tuesday afternoon, 52 of 56 teachers had responded. She computed the results Tuesday night. Principal Care opened the faculty discussion on Wednesday by thanking those who took time to respond and expressing understanding for those who did not because she knew everyone on the staff was busy and feeling overworked. She divided the faculty into small groups of 5-6 teachers, distributed the survey results, and asked the faculty to discuss what they learned from the data that informed their school improvement plan for next year. As the small groups shared their discussions, she typed their thoughts on the projector and facilitated the discussion.

30 Additional slides if time permits

31 Setting Direction The transformational leaders critical practices: –Building a shared vision (Provides Vision) –Fostering the acceptance of group goals (Fosters Commitment) –Conveying high performance expectations (Holds High Expectations) (Leithwood et al., 2006) (Original 6 factors in yellow)

32 Developing People The transformational leaders critical practices: –Providing individualized support/consideration (Provides Individualized Support) –Providing intellectual stimulation (Provides Intellectual Stimulation) –Providing an appropriate model (Models Behavior) (Leithwood et al., 2006) (Original 6 factors in yellow)

33 Redesigning the Organization The transformational leaders critical practices: –Building collaborative cultures –Restructuring the schools management structures –Building productive relationships with families and communities –Connecting the school to its wider environment. (Leithwood et al., 2006)

34 Managing the Instructional (Teaching and Learning) Programs The transformational leaders critical practices: –Staffing the programs –Providing instructional (teaching and learning) support –Managing school activity –Buffering staff from distractions to their work (Leithwood et al., 2006)

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