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The 21st Century Context for

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Teacher Leadership Institute Why Project Based Learning?

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1 The 21st Century Context for
Standards-Focused Project Based Learning Stage 1 Today we will begin designing the PBL units of study. We will focus on Stage 1 of the backward design process, but before we begin talking about Stage 1 specifically, I would like to make a few introductory remarks and remind you of a few points discussed when we were last together.

2 The Rigor/Relevance Framework
D G T A X O N M Y Evaluation 6 5 4 3 2 1 C Assimilation D Adaptation Synthesis Analysis Application A Acquisition B Application Understanding First, we need to be reminded of the Rigor and Relevance Framework. PBL is about launching instruction and assessing student learning in Quadrant D of the Framework. Of course, as soon as we launch in Quadrant D, the students begin to gather their facts and information and move to Quadrant D, and they progress through the other Quadrants, and sometimes move around non-sequentially, but they end with an assessment that is in Quadrant D. Awareness Apply across disciplines Apply to real world predictable situations Apply to real-world unpredictable situations Knowledge Apply in discipline APPLICATION MODEL International Center for Leadership in Education Carla Williamson

3 Rigor/Relevance Framework Teacher/Student Roles
Think Student Think & Work R I G O High A B Teacher Work Student Work We need to remind ourselves that we want to have student think and work taking place during PBL. Some of our teachers, not us of course, and many of our students have spent a great deal of the time in Quadrant A, and are comfortable there. That is very teacher directed work. PBL is not teacher directed work. Quadrant B is about putting the students to work, but it is not accompanied by heavy thinking. Quadrant C is about making students think, but there is not a great deal of application associated with that thinking. Quadrant D involves the students in thinking and working. Low Low High Relevance

4 What Zone Am I In? On Target THIS is the place to be.
I know some things… I have to think… I have to work… I have to persist… I hit some walls… I’m on my toes… I have to regroup… I feel challenged… Effort leads to success.. Too Easy I get it right away… I already know how… This is a cinch… I’m sure to make an A.., I’m coasting… I feel relaxed,,, I’m bored… No big effort necessary. Too Hard I don’t know where to start… I can’t figure it out… I’m spinning my wheels… I’m missing key skills… I feel frustrated… I feel angry… This makes no sense… Effort doesn’t pay off… Vygotsky’s work is relevant to PBL. Our PBLs must be challenging for all students—that means they must be on target…not so easy the students are bored and feel they can coast through the project and not so difficult that the students are frustrated and shut down. The perfect design will require some scaffolding and differentiating of instruction on your part. As you design your PBL, think about your students and design a PBL that will challenge them all, but build in the necessary scaffolding. Read those performance descriptors for the content objectives—build your performances and products and the accompanying rubrics around those performance descriptors—build from distinguished descriptor and not the mastery descriptor. THIS is the place to be. THIS is the achievement zone.

5 21st Century Skills Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
Creativity & Innovation Collaboration, Teamwork & Leadership Cross-cultural Understanding Communication & Media Literacy Computing and ITC Technology Career & Learning Self-direction Where do we find the 21str century skills in our curriculum framework? We find them in the programmatic learning skill and technology tool standards.

6 21st Century Skills 7 C’s Component Skills
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Creativity and Innovation Collaboration, Teamwork and Leadership Research, Analysis, Synthesis, Project Management, etc. New Knowledge Creation, Design Solutions, Storytelling Cooperation, Compromise, Consensus, Community Building Too often we throw around words like critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, leadership, media literacy and self-direction without taking time to define these words and to discuss what they really mean in our school, our county. For that reason, I have prepared this slide to get you thinking about what I think of when I hear these words. It is important that you understand this if I am asking you to inlcude problem solving or collaboration in your PBL units.

7 21st Century Skills 7 C’s Component Skills
Cross Cultural Understandings Communication and Media Literacy Computing and ITC Literacy Diverse ethnic, knowledge and organizational cultures Crafting and analyzing messages, using technology effectively Effective use of electronic information and knowledge tools

8 21st Century Skills 7 C’s Component Skills
7. Career and Learning Self Direction 7. Managing change, lifelong learning, and career redefinition

9 Creating a Learning Environment for 21st Century Skills
Students working in teams to experience and explore relevant, real-world problems, questions, issues, and challenges; then creating presentations and products to share what they have learned.

10 In a project learning classroom
The teacher’s role is one of coach, facilitator, guide, advisor, mentor… not directing and managing all student work.

11 Rigor/Relevance Framework Step 1.
Teacher gives students a real-world question to answer or problem to solve. D R I G O High A B I referenced this earlier and I shared these slides with you the last time we were together, but I think it is important to remind you of this Rigor and Relevance Framework and how it works with PBL. Low Low High Relevance

12 Rigor/Relevance Framework Step 2.
D R I G O High A B Students seek information to answer question or solve problem. Low Low High Relevance

13 Rigor/Relevance Framework Step3.
D R I G O High Students test the relevancy of the information as it relates to the question or problem. A B Low Low High Relevance

14 Rigor/Relevance Framework Step 4.
Students reflect on the potential use of the new information as a solution D R I G O High A B Low Low High Relevance

15 Rigor/Relevance Framework Step 5.
D Students apply the information learned to answer the question or to solve the problem. R I G O High A B Low Low High Relevance

16 Rigor/Relevance Framework Relationships
D Relationships Important R I G O Relationships Essential High A B Relationships of little importance Relationships Important I have not really talked about the importance of relationships when students and teachers are working and thinking in Quadrant D, but I think it will be easy for you to understand this. When our students are engaged in PBL, they are working in collaborative groups; this requires relationships and respectful learning environment. When I increase the rigor in my classroom and I am asking my students to not only work, but to also think, I am dependent upon their engagement in the learning experiences I have designed. That engagement is dependent upon the relationship I have with them. As a matter-of-fact, I have heard Ray McNulty, Vice President of the International Center for Leadership in Education say that Relationships are actually the foundation; without the relationships the students will not engage in the rigor and the relevance portions of the Framework. I think he is right. Low Low High Relevance

17 Begin with the end in mind. Stage 1
So, what do we do in Stage 1? What will we be doing these two days we have together?

18 Stage 1- This Work Session
Backward Design Process Begin with the End in Mind Develop a project idea Decide the scope of the project Select standards Incorporate simultaneous outcomes Work from project design criteria Create the optimal learning environment Craft the Driving Question

19 Backward Design Process Plan the assessment
Stage 2. Backward Design Process Plan the assessment Create a balanced assessment plan Align products and outcomes Know what to assess Use rubrics We will focus on Stage 2 when we come together again in about two weeks.

20 Stage 3 Backward Design Process Map the Project Manage the Process
Organize tasks and activities Decide how to launch the project Gather resources Draw a “Storyboard” Manage the Process Share project goals with students Use problem-solving tools Use checkpoints and milestones Plan for evaluation and reflection And, the following work session will focus on Stage 3.

21 Step 1. Develop a Project Idea
7 Suggestions: Work backward from a topic. Use your standards. Find projects and ideas on the Web. Map your community Match what people do in their daily work. Tie the project to local and national events. Focus on community service. Project ideas come from many places: articles, issues, current events, conversations with others, wonderment. Very often members of a teaching team develop ideas through their discussions. Once you have the idea, work backward to shape the idea to meet the CSOs and Perf. Descriptors. Projects must be standards-focused – content, learning skill and technology tool standards at grade level. To assist teachers in seeing the connectedness, or ways they can chunk CSOs, we have worked on Power Standards and they are available on Teach 21 site. You have created your set of grade level power standards for this project.

22 Step 1. Develop a Project Idea
7 Suggestions: Work backward from a topic. Use your standards. Find projects and ideas on the Web. Map your community Match what people do in their daily work. Tie the project to local and national events. Focus on community service. Student groups can explore the community outside the walls of the school. Our communities contain a multitude of possible projects. By having the students examine the community, they can develop project themes Consider modeling projects off of questions people ask in their work, or problems people face in their work, problems students face in their school lives. Projects are a great way to focus student attention on controversies and questions plaguing society today It is very easy to organize projects around authentic community needs.

23 Step 2. Define scope of project.
Duration Breadth Technology Outreach Partnership Audience This information is covered on pages 15 and 16 of Buck Institute PBL Handbook. Duration: Small projects are usually 5-10 days in length; ambitious projects may consume a semester Breadth: One topic and one standard or multiple disciplines with multiple standards. Technology: Limited or extensive use; few or many technologies Outreach: Is the project classroom-based or community-based? Partnership: You alone as the teacher or will you work with several teachers and community members? Audience: Will the audience for presentation be classmates or the school or will you have an expert panel?

24 3. Select Standards What do you want your students to know and be able to do? Identify the key standards that you believe might best be met through project based instruction. No more than 3 standards per subject is best in shorter projects. Adjust accordingly for interdisciplinary or longer-term projects. Include at least one literacy outcome in your project. Do not plan for outcomes you cannot assess. Be clear about the standards that will be assessed and how the products will allow each student to demonstrate their learning.

25 4. Simultaneous Outcomes
Teachers incorporate more than academic outcomes into classroom activities Specific skills (being able to work in groups, manage projects, meet deadlines, present information, think critically, solve problems, use technology efficiently) Habits of mind (curiosity, flexibility, perseverance)


27 5. Project Design Criteria
The Six A’s Authenticity Academic Rigor Applied Learning Active Exploration Adult Connections Thoughtful Assessment Practices Your rubric for quality PBL design is built around the Six A’s.

28 5. Project Design Does the project Meet standards? Engage students?
Focus on essential understanding? Encourage higher-level thinking? Teach literacy and reinforce basic skills? Allow all students to succeed? Use clear, precise assessments? Require the sensible use of technology? Address authentic issues?

29 Caution Well-designed projects that meet PBL criteria differ from activities, or even projects, that have been traditional in the classroom.

30 pbl vs. projects Continuum of Practice Projects PBL Teacher directed
Inquiry based Highly structured Open-ended Summative On-going Thematic Driving question/challenge Fun Engaging Answer giving Problem solving De-contextualized – School world Contextualized – Real world Continuum of Practice

31 6. Optimal Learning Environment
Give your project one or more connections beyond the classroom walls (partnerships, electronic linkages with distant people, mentorships) Alter the look and feel of your classroom (partition room for group spaces; make the classroom like an office or laboratory) .

32 6. Optimal Learning Environment
Three Ideas for improving learning: See the whole before practicing the parts. Study content and apply it to authentic problems. Make schoolwork more like real work.

33 Buck Institute PBL Handbook
Begin with the End in Mind Idea Bank Project Ideas Project Outcomes Project Design

34 Crafting the Driving Question
When crafting the Driving Question, remember: Driving Questions are provocative. Driving Questions are open-ended. Driving Questions go to the heart of a discipline or topic. Driving Questions are challenging. Driving Questions can arise from real-world dilemmas that students interesting. Driving Questions are consistent with curricular standards and frameworks. Tomorrow Alma is going to open up the day with a presentation on Driving Questions. She did this at Teacher Leadership Institute and participants in the clinic were very complimentary, so I asked her to share her work and best thinking with you.

35 Example from PBL Handbook
Should the Unites States have used the atomic bomb in World War II?

36 Buck Institute PBL Handbook
Resources Project Planning Forms Buck Institute PBL Handbook “Begin with the End in Mind” & “Draft the Driving Question” Do not hesitate to use the Buck Institute Handbook we gave you. It is a great resource, as is there site which I cited earlier.

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