Presentation on theme: "Learning Goals Identify various ancient civilizations of India and significant leaders of each. Explain the reasons behind the rise and fall of various."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Goals Identify various ancient civilizations of India and significant leaders of each. Explain the reasons behind the rise and fall of various empires. List achievements of various Ancient Indian Civilizations.
The Maurya Empire Chandagupta Maurya First ruler of the Maurya Empire Why important? – Began the Maurya Dynasty – Ruled India for 140 years Dynasty – ruling family.
Government Pataliputra – capital Mighty wooden wall 570 guard towers 64 gates Chandragupta never slept in the same bed twice.
Chandragupta Enjoyed peace Trade Irrigation systems Maintained roads
Asoka Reforms/Changes Grandson of Chandragupta Brought Maurya Empire to the height of its power.
Asoka Asoka’s Transformation Beginning of rule: Ruled harshly. Waged War. 100,000 killed under his rule. End of rule: Sickened by bloodshed, Asoka converted to Bhudism and practiced non-violence. The end of his rule was kind and benevolent, with little force.
Asoka Worked to improve lives of people. “All men are my children. As on behalf of my own children I desire that they may be provided by me with complete welfare and happiness in this world and in the next, so do I desire for all men as well” ASOKA – spread Buddhism and ordered the building of thousands of stupas. Stupa – shrine containing remains of the Buddha.
The Fall of the Maurya Empire Asoka’s death led to the fall of the Maurya Empire. Invaders moved into the land. Invader’s ideas, customs, culture was absorbed into Hindu culture.
The Gupta Empire Chandragupta I Young warrior. – Purposely wanted to link his name with the ancient Chandragupta. Achievements: – Art, literature, math. Indian scholars developed the concept of “0.”
The Decline Gupta Empire declines: Huns and Central Asian powers invaded South Asia. Arrival marked the end of the Gupta Empire. A Clash of Beliefs: Muslims vs. Hindus Islam was based on belief in one God. Hindus worshipped many Gods. Islam taught that all Muslims were equal under God and Hinduism promoted the Caste System.
The Mughal Empire The reign of Akbar – Realized that to rule India he must rule BOTH Muslims and Hindus. – How? – Religious toleration. – Marries a Hindu (he was Muslim) – Abolished a special tax on Hindus. – Appointed Hindus to jobs in government. – LEGACY: today Hindus honor Akbar as a MASTER OF COMPROMISE
The Arts Hindu and Islamic styled blended. Shah Jahan (Akbar’s grandson) A monument to Mumtaz Muhal (Shah Jahan’s wife)
The Decline of the Mughal Empire Wasteful Spending Akbar’s successor (new rulers) ended his policy of toleration – Imposed heavy taxes on Hinduism. – Closed Hindu schools. – Dismissed Hindus from government. – This led to Civil War and Revolts throughout the country.