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Designated Person Indoor Air Quality Training Program

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1 Designated Person Indoor Air Quality Training Program
Public Employees Occupational Safety and Health (PEOSH) Program

2 Purpose of Designated Person Training
Discuss role and responsibilities Understand basic IAQ terminology Explain a basic HVAC system Review PEOSH IAQ standard Discuss how to recognize and solve basic IAQ problems Discuss necessary steps to respond to employee’s complaints When and how to obtain assistance The Designated Person training is designed to assist the Designated Person with the necessary skills to comply with the requirements set forth in the NJ Indoor Air Quality Standard, N.J.A.C. 12: The IAQ Standard requires public employers to: (1) take certain actions to prevent or control indoor contaminants, (2) implement procedures to minimize the infiltration of pollutants during renovation and construction, and (3) address employees’ complaints regarding the IAQ.

3 Recommended Skills and Authority of Designated Person
Knowledgeable about NJ IAQ Standard Familiar with basic issues regarding IAQ Working knowledge of air handling system Be in a position of authority Effectively communicate with management, staff, maintenance, contractors Good problem solver Available Examples: Head of Maintenance, H&S professional, B&G Director. Lower level personnel may not have adequate authority. Can be a consultant. Admin must contact consultant.

4 Role of the Designated Person
Coordinate IAQ Activities Prepare Written IAQ Program Establish and follow preventive maintenance procedures Track unscheduled maintenance Establish control measures for pollutants Renovation and construction Specific facility operations Maintenance activities Recordkeeping Annual Written IAQ Program Review The primary role for the Designated Person is to serve as point person for coordinating the activities of monitoring and assessing employee activities and any workplace processes that may affect the quality of the indoor environment. The Designated Person may function only as the coordinator of events and activities, or may be responsible for both coordinating and implementing mitigating activities to solve IAQ problems. The type, size, and complexity of the facility and its air handling system, and the expertise of the Designated Person will determine his/her specific role.

5 Management of IAQ A Coordinated Effort
Basic structure of management

6 Management of IAQ A Coordinated Effort
Situations can be complex.

7 IAQ Basics Problems occur in many types of buildings
Problems reflect both comfort and health related issues Primary sources of IAQ problems include: Ventilation Contaminants generated indoors Infiltration of outdoor contaminants Unidentified sources Problems occur in new and old buildings. Off gassing of materials in new. Malfunctioning systems in older. Comfort issues (temp), health issues (respiratory symptoms) Inadequately ventilated storage closets. Outdoor contaminants: natural and man-made

8 IAQ Basics Types of Air Contaminants
Vapors – Solid or liquid converted by heat to a gaseous state (i.e., methylene chloride, mercury) Gases – Formless fluid occupying an enclosure which confines it (i.e., carbon dioxide, oxygen) Fumes – Condensation of gas into particle <1 micrometers (µm) (welding) Dust – Particulate ranging in size from 0.1 to 25µm Fibers – An elongated particle with aspect ratio of greater than 3:1 Bioaerosols – Airborne particles that originate from living organisms (i.e., pollen, spores, fragments, waste) Many of these contaminants are found indoors, however, their concentrations usually do not cause problems for the building inhabitants. It is when the contaminants are allowed to proliferate or the ventilation system is not well maintained that problems occur.

9 Acceptable IAQ American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) defines acceptable IAQ as: “air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by authorities and at which a substantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction” Even within recommended standards, still have 20% complaint rate.

10 Varied and non-specific
IAQ Basics Health Effects Varied and non-specific Reports of health related problems and comfort issues Air monitoring does not always support their existence Difficult to assess and associate with building. Drs frequently diagnose symptoms as “building related” based on limited anecdotal information. There could be other causes (allergy season, infectious disease).

11 Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) vs. Building-Related Illness (BRI)
Symptoms: Do not fit the pattern of any particular illness Difficult to trace to a specific source Relief occurs upon leaving the building BRI Symptoms: Are often accompanied by physical signs identified by a physician and/or laboratory findings Relief from illness may not occur upon leaving the building SBS is general. Difficult to diagnose and treat. BRI is more concrete and defined

12 Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) vs. Building-Related Illness (BRI)
Symptoms: Headaches Eye, nose, throat irritation Dry or itchy skin Fatigue Dizziness Nausea Loss of concentration BRI Symptoms: Eye, nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract irritation Skin irritation or rashes Chills, fever, cough, chest tightness, congestion, sneezing, runny nose Muscle aches Similar symptoms. BRI is more defined and treatable.

13 Building-Related Illnesses
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Asthma Chemical Sensitivity Legionnaires’ Disease

14 IAQ Basics Factors Affecting IAQ Building occupant activities
Design and condition of HVAC Construction and renovation activities General outdoor sources Activities: Perfume, plants, air fresheners, candles, etc. Design and Condition: New vs. old, add-ons General Outdoor: pollen, mold, leaves, diesel exhaust.

15 IAQ Ventilation System
Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Purpose Regulates the temperature and humidity for comfort Supplies general ventilation to decrease indoor pollutants In general ventilation systems regulate temperature and humidity for the comfort of building occupants. It also supplies general ventilation which decreases common indoor contaminants. The type and purpose of the HVAC system will determine the exact components found in a facility’s system.

16 IAQ Basic Ventilation System
Fresh air is taken in from the outside, filtered and tempered and mixed with some portion of indoor air, then distributed throughout the building by the air handling system. Humidification and dehumidification features may also be included in the process. A portion of the air is exhausted to the outdoors. A breakdown or inadequate performance in one or more of these steps may change the quality of the indoor air. Additionally, activities under taken that block the supply or return air vents and the installation of room partitions or other such interior changes that interfere with the designed air flow of the system can also impact on the quality of the indoor air. Unit ventilators function in similar manner. For space like toilets, kitchens, mechanical rooms an exhaust system is in place to get rid of unwanted odors directly to the outdoors. Employee activities such as cleaning, painting, food preparations and equipment use such as copiers can generate to indoor contaminants as well. If a breakdown occurs here contaminants may also build up. Buildings should blow, not suck. Exhaust flow rate should be less than intake to maintain positive pressure.

17 IAQ Complex Ventilation System

18 IAQ Ventilation System

19 IAQ Ventilation System
Must maintain window A/C units. Window units supplied by employees must be maintained.

20 IAQ Ventilation System
Air Handling Unit (AHU) Air Filters Air filters should have a dust-spot rating between 35% and 80% or a Minimum Efficiency Rating Value (MERV) of between 8 and 13 Some filters are not efficient enough to remove small fungal and bacterial spores Want to follow manufacturers recommendations. Blowers may not be powerful enough to pull air through more efficient filters. The higher the rating, the better the protection for the equipment and the occupants. Efficiency range is recommended by EPA. Replace on regular basis Should fit tightly in filter housing component. Match efficiency of filters to specification of HVAC system.

21 IAQ Ventilation System

22 IAQ Ventilation System
Air Handling Unit (AHU) Humidification and Dehumidification Humidification provides moisture to the air and dehumidification removes the moisture Maintain relative humidity below 60% in all occupied spaces and in low air-velocity plenums Drain and clean surfaces to prevent microbial growth ASHRAE recommends 30 to 60% Remove visible microbial contamination in humidifiers and dehumidifiers Prevent moisture from entering duct lining

23 IAQ Ventilation System
Air Handling Unit (AHU) Coils and Drain Pans Coils dehumidify the air forming condensate water which is released into drain pans and removed from the AHU Can use biocide tablets to prevent microbial growth. Source of Legionella. Check for dirt which can cause coils to malfunction Note condition of fan Check for proper control function Ensure drain pan does not allow water to stand Clean pans regularly

24 IAQ Ventilation System
Air Handling Unit (AHU) Return Air Plenum - Space above ceiling tiles is often used as return air plenum Maintain all exhaust systems that pass through plenum No exhaust should be released into the plenum Prevent contamination of the area and ensure air flow is not blocked Do not paint wet ceiling tiles. Remove and dispose of wet ceiling tiles. Repair activities can disturb dust or generate contaminants in plenum area.

25 IAQ Ventilation System
Ducts Move the filtered and conditioned air to occupied areas of the building Check duct system for microbial growth Examine the reservoir of humidification units for contamination Give particular attention to areas where moisture can collect (restricted air flow areas and duct lining) Minimize dust and debris build up Promptly repair leaks paying attention to joints

26 IAQ Ventilation System
Fans Ensure fan belts are operating properly Rotation

27 IAQ Ventilation System
Local Exhaust System Buildings should remain under slightly positive pressure to avoid bringing in unfiltered air Buildings should remain under slightly positive pressure to avoid bringing in un-filtered or uncontrolled air by bringing in more outdoor air into the building than exhausted out of the building

28 IAQ Ventilation System
Dampers Check condition of dampers and controls Ensure dampers are operable and meet the design specifications for bringing in outdoor air Clean screens and grilles and prevent obstructions in this area There may be other components for the HVAC system such as chillers, cooling towers, and boilers that will need to be checked. You may need assistance from other staff members trained in the function of some systems. Leased buildings, frequently closed to reduce costs of heating/cooling.

29 IAQ Basics Building Conditions and Effects
Problem: Poorly regulated temperature and humidity levels Effects: Temperature complaints Condensation, microbial contamination Dryness, upper respiratory irritation, nosebleeds Solutions: Check system sizing Adjust dampers Location of controls

30 IAQ Basics Building Conditions and Effects
Problem: Disruption of air circulation Effects: Stagnant air Temperature extremes Solutions: Ensure sizing of HVAC system Balancing Inspect for blocked supply diffusers

31 IAQ Basics Building Conditions and Effects
Problem: Lack of Fresh Air Effects: Stagnant air Odors Increased contaminant concentrations Solutions: Develop and follow preventive maintenance schedule Ensure dampers are open and operational Inspect filters for condition and compatibility

32 IAQ Ventilation System
Exhaust from laboratory fume hood. Recommend raise and/or move.

33 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13 et seq.
Adopted in 1998 First IAQ Standard in U.S. Revised in 2007, PEOSH Advisory Board, IAQ Subcommittee Effective date: May 21, 2007

34 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13 et seq.
13.1 Scope 13.2 Definitions 13.3 Compliance Program 13.4 Control of Specific Contaminant Sources 13.5 Air Quality During Renovation & Remodeling 13.6 Recordkeeping 13.7 Employer’s Response to Complaints 13.8 IAQ Compliance Documents

35 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.1
Scope: This subchapter shall apply to matters relating to indoor air quality in buildings occupied by public employees during regular work hours.

36 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.2
Definitions (selected): "Designated person" means a person who has been given the responsibility by the employer to take necessary measures to assure compliance with this subchapter. "Office building" means a building in which administrative, clerical or educational activities are conducted. Examples of facilities and/or operations, which are not office buildings, include repair shops, garages, print shops and warehouses. Selected Definitions Office Building: Office-type work HVAC: Includes all components. Includes window A/C units. Renovation: Building modification, not repair

37 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.2
Definitions (selected): "HVAC system" means the collective components of the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system including, but not limited to, filters and frames, cooling coil condensate drip pans and drainage piping, outside air dampers and actuators, humidifiers, air distribution ductwork, automatic temperature controls, and cooling towers. "Renovation and remodeling" means building modification involving activities that include but are not limited to: removal or replacement of walls, roofing, ceilings, floors, carpet, and components such as moldings, cabinets, doors, and windows; painting; decorating; demolition; surface refinishing; and removal or cleaning of ventilation ducts.

38 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.3
Compliance Program Employer shall identify and train a Designated Person Employer’s designated person shall: Establish and follow a preventative maintenance schedule Ensure that damaged or inoperable components are replaced or repaired promptly, ensure no microbial growth Implement the use of general or local exhaust ventilation Check the HVAC system when carbon dioxide levels exceed 1,000 ppm

39 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.3
Compliance Program Employer’s designated person shall: Check HVAC system if temperature range is outside 68°F-79°F Prevent contamination of fresh air supply Check natural ventilation portals are maintained Promptly investigate all employee complaints about BRI or SBS Prepare written plan (including required components) Review and update written plan annually Stress Temperature requirement Model written plan is provided by PEOSH\ Maintain in operable condition all portals designed for introducing natural ventilation windows, doors, vents, and stacks

40 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.4
Control Specific Indoor Contaminants Microbial Contaminants Promptly repair water intrusion that can promote growth of biological Remediate damp/wet material by drying or removal within 48hrs of discovery and continue until water intrusion is eliminated Remove visible microbial contamination Are not required to fix leak w/in 48hrs, just remove material. Clean up mold in accordance with recommended practice. Don’t have to sample. Spend money on repair.

41 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.5
Renovation and Remodeling: Evaluate chemical hazards Notify employees 24 hours prior to any construction Utilize local exhaust ventilation Isolate construction areas (scheduling, physical barriers, pressure differentials) Construction areas required to be cleaned and aired out as necessary prior to re-occupancy Example notification form included in program Cleaned and aired out is subjective. No visible dust or offensive odors. Temp relocate sensitive staff may be advisable.

42 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.6
Recordkeeping Required Records Written IAQ Program Documentation of Designated Person Training Written Preventive Maintenance Program Preventive Maintenance Log and Blueprints, water treatment logs, HVAC commissioning reports, balancing reports, O&M manuals.

43 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.6
Recordkeeping Requirements: Maintained for 3 years Available to employees and representatives for examination and copying ASAP or within 10 working days Available immediately during PEOSH inspection 10 day deadline is new

44 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.7
Employer’s Response to Signed PEOSH Complaint: Not currently used. Response (w/in 15 working days) may include any of the following: Complaint unfounded; Description and documentation of remedial action taken; An outline of remedial measures planned with a timetable for completion; and/or A statement that the problem is being studied with a timetable for completion of the study

45 PEOSH IAQ Standard N.J.A.C. 12:100-13.8
IAQ Compliance Documents As-built construction documents HVAC System Commissioning Report HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Reports Operations and Maintenance Manuals Water Treatment Logs Operator Training Materials Must be provided to PEOSH, upon request (if available) As built construction documents; HVAC System Commissioning Report; HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Reports; Operations and Maintenance Manuals; Water Treatment Logs Operator Training Materials

46 Other Standards Related to IAQ (Overview)
PEOSH General Industry (29 CFR ) and Construction (29 CFR ) Asbestos Standards Identification of asbestos-containing materials in all buildings (pre-1980) Labeling and signage requirements Annual awareness training Notification of outside contractors Other Federal and State Asbestos Standards Schools (AHERA)-U.S. EPA/NJDHSS NJ Uniform Construction Code-Subchapter 8, NJ Dept. of Community Affairs (NJDCA)

47 Other Standards Related to IAQ (Overview)
Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR , Tables Z-1, Z-2) Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records Standard (29 CFR )

48 PEOSH Program Response to Unacceptable IAQ
Conduct Employee Interviews Review Building Operations & Maintenance Procedures Walk-through Inspection Inspect HVAC System Review As-builts Conduct Sampling, if necessary Complete PEOSH IAQ Checklist

49 IAQ Preventive Maintenance (PM)
Equipment List Master Schedule Documentation Equipment List Equipment List, Inventory Operating Manuals, ASHRAE Guidelines Control blueprints Master Schedule Scheduled maintenance tasks, Mfgr. Recs. Work orders, Maintenance Contracts Documentation Inspection/Maintenance checklists Documentation of unscheduled repairs

50 IAQ Recommended Inspection Protocol
Fan belts operate properly and in good condition Filters are installed properly and replaced as scheduled Dampers are open as designed and not blocked Motor functions properly Diffusers are opened Condensate pans drained Supply and exhaust system are properly balanced

51 IAQ PM Documentation Name of person and date work performed shown on maintenance schedule Specify activity performed on a work order Reason for inspection Observations Item repaired/replaced Time spent on activity Document all preventative maintenance activities and repairs and retain for at least three years; and The following information should be included in the documentation: Date the work was performed Name of the person or company performing the work Identification of the activities performed including * checking/changing air filters * checking humidification system * check damper position * checking/changing belts * lubrication of equipment parts * checking/replacing motor * confirming the operation of the equipment * checking for microbial growth

52 IAQ Scenario 1 Mold

53 IAQ Scenario 1 Discussion
Visible mold Remove porous materials – (follow Mold Guidelines) Address water infiltration Replace materials Other regulatory requirements?

54 IAQ Scenario 2 Construction/Renovation
Carpet replacement in 2nd fl. office area Adjoining areas occupied Performed during regular work hours

55 IAQ Scenario 2 Construction/Renovation
Inspect area for asbestos floor tiles/mastic Prepare bid specs Review materials with contractor, MSDS Notify employees (less than 24 hrs.)

56 IAQ Scenario 2 Construction/Renovation
Isolate work area, secure HVAC Maintain negative pressure Exercise good housekeeping Air-out room prior to re-occupancy Recordkeeping

57 IAQ Isolate Construction/Occupied Areas
Ask what the problem is in this picture. A: bulging plastic demonstrates positive pressure in construction area.

58 IAQ Employee Complaints
Follow Up on Employees Complaints Conduct interviews Review building operations and maintenance procedures Complete PEOSH IAQ Inspection Checklist Involve employees through L/MH&SC* Communicate outcome and corrective action Report all complaints to one person Using the employee diary form will give insight to any patterns developing with respect to symptoms, area of concern and exposure route. Complaints should be reported to one person so that they can be accurately evaluated and assessed and problem areas identified. *Labor-Management Health & Safety Committee

59 Ask for Help PEOSH Health Consultation Project Local/County Health Departments Private Consultants American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) -

60 Additional IAQ Resources
PEOSH Publications Public Employer’s Guide and Model Written Program for the Revised Indoor Air Quality Standard PEOSH Policy on Building Renovations Information Bulletin Renovation & Construction in Schools-Controlling Health and Safety Hazards Information Bulletin Bioaerosols Information Bulletin Mold in The Workplace, Prevention and Control Information Bulletin

61 PEOSH IAQ Standard Web Page

62 Additional IAQ Resources
Tools for Schools (TfS) Kit Shows schools how to carry out a practical plan of action to improve indoor air problems at little or no cost using straightforward activities and in-house staff. Provides best practices, industry guidelines, sample policies, and a sample IAQ management plan. The voluntary guidance can save schools time and money so that resources can be directed toward educating children. Co-sponsored by the National Parent Teacher Association, National Education Association, Association of School Business Officials, American Federation of Teachers, and the American Lung Association.

63 Additional IAQ Resources
Healthy SEAT – Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool Free software tool to help school systems more effectively manage all of their environmental issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized by school systems to conduct and manage self-assessments of their school facilities for a wide range of environmental, health, and safety issues.

64 Additional IAQ Resources
IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) The I-BEAM is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

65 Additional IAQ Resources
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers (BAQ Guide) and the Building Air Quality Action Plan Developed by the EPA and NIOSH Provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings Provides information on factors affecting indoor air quality Describes how to develop an IAQ profile of building conditions and create an IAQ management plan Describes investigative strategies to identify causes of IAQ problems Provides criteria for assessing alternative mitigation strategies, determining whether a problem has been resolved, and deciding whether to consult outside technical specialists

66 Additional IAQ Resources
Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings Presents guidelines for the remediation/cleanup of mold and moisture problems in schools and commercial buildings Includes measures designed to protect the health of building occupants and remediators Designed primarily for building managers, custodians, and others who are responsible for commercial building and school maintenance

67 Additional IAQ Resources
NJ Department of Health and Senior Services – Healthy Schools Web Site The Healthy School Facility Environments Web site was developed for parents, students, school staff, administrators, architects, engineers, and contractors. It contains important information about preventing, identifying, and controlling health and safety hazards in school buildings.

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