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Introduction to Biotechnology
Biotechnology Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs.Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
Biotechnology Improvements by using scienceScience helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
Biotechnology Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
Biotechnology Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
Biotechnology Large areaIncludes many approaches and methods in science and technology
Office of Tech Assessment DefinitionAny technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
Cont. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
Agricultural View Milk productionNew horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
Multidisciplinary Involves many disciplines or branches of learningIncludes all areas of Life Sciences
Organismic Biotech Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
Organismic Biotech Help the organism live better or be more productiveGoal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
Organismic Biotech Study and use natural genetic variationsCloning is an example of organismic biotech
Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland
Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organismAltering the structure and parts of cells Complex!
Molecular Biotech Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
Genetic Engineering Changing the genetic information in a cellSpecific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
Transgenic Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic”Genetic material in an organism has been altered
Biotech examples Medicine Agriculture Environment ForestryFood and beverage processing
Medicine Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
Medicine Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology Called designer drugs
Medicine Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
Medicine Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
Environment Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants
Environmental Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
Ag and Forestry Plant biotech Animal biotech
Plant biotech Improve plants and the products produced from themInsect and disease resistance Engineered to have desired characteristics
Plant biotech Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
Animal Biotech Improve animals or the products they produceAnimals may be used to produce products that promote human health
Animal Biotech Increase productivityPigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
Food and Beverages Use of technology in producing and processingSome biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years Yeast in baking bread
Food and Bev. Genetically altered crops rBGH milk
Biotechnology Helps meet human needs Food, clothing and shelterPlants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
Biotechnology Used to make products more useful or desirableEx: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
Efficiency Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possibleBiotech results in greater efficiency
Efficiency Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
Efficiency Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
Greater Production Increases yieldsbST use in cows to produce more milk Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
Health Promoting FoodsFood with unique traits Some contain therapeutants Some designed with nutrient enrichment
Safety Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
Easy preparation Flavr-Savr Tomato Reached the market in early 1990’sEngineered to have a longer shelf life
Flavr-Savr No soft spots No rotten spots Tomato resists spoilage
Synthetic biology Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
Synthetic Biology Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
Vesicle Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane Visible only with powerful microscope
Vesicle Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
Synthetic biology Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease
USING APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Practical Applications of Biotechnology 1.Bioprocessing technology Uses whole living cells or components of them to manufacture desired products. Most.
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PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY. Biotechnology Bio Biology Technology Application The application of Biology for the benefit of humans.
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY. Biotechnology ? The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries The application.
Science – the study of the natural world Technology – the development of equipment needed to study the sciences. Science & Technology spur each other.
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