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Meat Science Slaughter Process wIwImmobilization wAwAnimal is rendered unconscious wdwdoes not feel pain.

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Presentation on theme: "Meat Science Slaughter Process wIwImmobilization wAwAnimal is rendered unconscious wdwdoes not feel pain."— Presentation transcript:


2 Meat Science

3 Slaughter Process wIwImmobilization wAwAnimal is rendered unconscious wdwdoes not feel pain

4 Kosher Slaughter wawanimal is slaughtered under the regulations of the Jewish religion wawanimals slaughtered for Kosher markets do not have to be stunned.

5 Methods wCwCarbon dioxide chamber wewelectric shock wcwcartridge or mechanical bolt

6 Immobilization wawallows the heart to pump in order to drain the animals body of blood

7 Exsanguination wpwprocess of bleeding the animal wuwusually done by severing the jugular vein with a sharp knife

8 wbwbleeding must be done quickly to avoid hemorrhaging whwhemorrhaging can cause blood spots in the meat

9 Hemorrhage wewescape of blood from ruptured blood vessels wcwcaused by a rise in blood pressure

10 Hide and organs removed wlwliver wbwbrains wpwpancreas wiwintestines whwheart and kidneys

11 In the US wtwthere are over 5000 plants that slaughter animals

12 Hogs waware dipped into scalding water and placed on a machine that scrapes the hair from the hide wswsome plants may skin hogs

13 Organs used for food wlwliver - most common wbwbrains, pancreas, intestines, and heart wkwkidneys may also be used for human consumption

14 Inspectors waware present to inspect carcass and internal organs wdwdetect any health concerns

15 wiwif a problem is found with the carcass, the entire carcass may be condemned weweach carcass to be sold must be inspected

16 Cooling wcwcarcasses may be wrapped in a shroud wcwcarcass goes through rigor mortis wcwcarcass may be aged

17 wbwbeef carcasses are split down the middle wswsides of beef are created by sawing down the backbone

18 Carcasses wmwmay be divided into quarters by cutting each side in two pieces. wSwSides are divided at the 12th and 13th rib to form quarters

19 wlwlamb carcasses are usually sent to the cooler whole as they are much smaller whwhog carcasses are split into sides by cutting down the backbone.

20 wbwbeef and hog carcasses that have been skinned are covered in a heavy cloth soaked in salt water wcwcalled a shroud

21 Shroud wpwprevents the carcass from drying out

22 Carcasses waware cooled down rapidly wgwgo through rigor mortis wmwmuscles lock into place and carcass becomes stiff

23 Rigor Mortis wpwphysiology is similar to muscle contractions in live animals wcwcarcass muscles do not relax

24 wowonset usually takes 6 - 12 hours for beef and lamb w3w30 minutes - 3 hours for pork

25 wawas enzymes and microorganisms begin to break down the muscle tissue, rigor mortis is partially relaxed

26 Cooling wQwQuick cooling of meat is important to minimize protein degradation wiwinhibit growth of microorganisms

27 Pork and Lamb wcwcarcasses are usually cooled for 18-24 hours before cutting

28 Beef wcwcooled for 30 or more hours before cutting into wholesale cuts wmwmay also be aged in the cooler for as much as a week

29 Aging wcwcarcasses undergo a period of aging to allow enzymes and microoganims to begin the process of breaking down the tissue

30 wiwimproves tenderness and flavor wawadds to the expense of processing meat

31 Aging alternatives wewelectric stimulation of muscles wcwcurrent of 600 volts is sent through the carcass right after slaughter and before the hide is removed

32 wswstimulation speeds natural processes that occur after death wdwdepletion of energy stores from the body

33 Electric stimulation wiwimproves tenderness wiwimprove color, texture and firmness wmwmakes hide removal easier

34 Grading wcwcarcasses are graded according to USDA standards wfwfederal meat grading was established in 1925

35 wawadministered by the AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service) of the USDA

36 Grade wcwcertifies class, quality and condition with uniform standards

37 Quality grades wpwprediction of the eating quality (palatability) of the meat when properly prepared

38 Yield Grades wiwindicate expected yield of edible meat from a carcass and the subsequent wholesale cuts from that carcass

39 Grading wiwis voluntary and is paid for by the packer

40 Quality Beef Grades wpwprime wcwchoice wswselect wswstandard wcwcommercial

41 wuwutility wcwcutter wcwcanner

42 Grades waware determined by the age of the animal wawamount of fat intermingled with the muscle

43 Age wdwdetermined by maturity of the cartilage and bones wcwcartilage hardens and turns to bone as the animal ages

44 wgwgraders inspect the rib cage and vertebrae for the degree of bone and cartilage hardening - ossification

45 wawas the animal ages, vertebrae in the lower end of backbone tend to fuse or grow together. wAwAnimals older than about 42 months cannot receive the highest two grades

46 wywyounger animals are usually more tender than older animals

47 Fat wfwfat, known as marbling wswshows up as specks of white across the rib eye wmwmore specks of fat that are visible, the higher the grade

48 Prime whwhas the highest degree of fat in the muscle wfwfat gives meat its flavor and juiciness

49 wfwfat is expensive to put on animals wlwleaner grades are less expensive

50 Feedlot operators want their animals to grade low choice at slaughter wtwthose raising prime animals usually cater to the restaurant trade

51 Beef wmwmost beef bought in the grocery store is choice grade. wAwA few market chains are selling the leaner select grade as a low fat meat

52 Yield Grade wewestimate of the percentage of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts that come from the major lean primal cuts

53 Beef Yield grades w1w1 over 52.3 % lean primal cuts w2w2 50 - 52.3% w3w3 47.7-50.0 w4w4 45.4-47.7% w5w5 less than 45.4%

54 Wholesale cuts wPwPrimal cuts wbwbeef wcwchuck, loin, rib and round

55 wpwpork wswshoulder, loin, sides and ham

56 wlwlamb wswshoulder, rib, loin, and leg

57 Retail cuts wpwprimal cuts are divided into retail cuts wcwcuts of meat that the consumer buys at the grocery store

58 wswsized into portions that can be easily cooked and eaten without further cutting or trimming

59 Retail Cuts wmwmost expensive usually come from the loin area wmwmost tender of the muscle groups wcwchops and steaks such as the T Bone

60 Trimmings waware made into sausage or ground meat wswsausage is spiced and preserved by drying or smoking

61 Palatability whwhow food appeals to the palate - taste wdwdepends upon: appearance, aroma, flavor, tenderness, and juiciness

62 wdwdepends upon the combination of qualities and the way it is cooked

63 Appearance wbwbeef, pork and lamb vary in the shades of red color wdwdarker meats are associated with either a lack of freshness or meat from older animals

64 wbwbright red gives the appearance of being fresh and wholesome

65 Fat wtwthat is yellow instead of creamy white is less appealing to consumers wywyellow fat is found in certain breeds of animals that are unable to convert carotene

66 wgwgrain fed cattle generally have white fat and considered to taste better than grass fed beef wgwgrass fed may have yellow fat

67 Tenderness wcwcomponents of muscle that contribute to tenderness: wcwconnective tissue, state of muscle fibers, amounts of adipose (fat ) tissue

68 Connective tissue wcwconnects various parts of the body wiwis distributed throughout the body

69 Collagen wmwmost abundant protein the animal wmwmore activity - more collagen wawas the animal ages, collagen becomes less soluble

70 Elastin wewelastic like protein found throughout the ligaments, arterial walls, and organ structures wfwfibers are easily stretched, unaffected by cooking

71 Fresh Meats wWwWhen selecting, avoid extremes in apparent juiciness

72 Flavor changes wowoften occur after extended storage wcwchemical breakdown of nucleotides give a desirable aged flavor

73 wOwOxidation of fats results in a rancid flavor and a sharp unpleasant aroma

74 Preservation and Storage wmwmeat is highly perishable wswspoils quickly wcwcreate conditions that are unfavorable to growth of spoilage organisms

75 wdwdrying wswsmoking wswsalting wrwrefrigeration

76 wfwfreezing wcwcanning wfwfreeze-drying

77 wmwmeat provides an ideal environment for microbial growth wmwmolds wywyeast wbwbacteria

78 Molds wmwmulticellular, multicolored organisms whwhave fuzzy, mildew-like appearance

79 wswspread by spores that float in the air or transported by contact with objects

80 Yeasts wlwlarge, unicellular bud and spore forms wswspread by contact or in air currents

81 wmwmost colonies are white to creamy in color wuwusually moist or slimy in appearance or to the touch

82 Microbial growth wawaffected by temperature wmwmoisture wowoxygen wpwpH physical form of the meat

83 Temperature wcwcan influence the rate and kind of microbial growth

84 Psychrophiles wgwgrow in cooler temperatures w3w32-68 degrees F

85 Thermophiles wgwgrow best in warmer temperatures w4w45-65 degrees F

86 Mesophiles wgwgrowth optimum between psycros and thermos

87 Microbes wtwtemperatures below 40 degrees F greatly retard the growth of spoilage microbes and prevent growth of pathogens

88 Moisture wgwgreatly affect the growth of certain microbes wmwmust have moisture to reproduce

89 Oxygen wawavailability determines the type of microbe that grows wawaerobic - require free oxygen wawanaerobic - grow in the absence of oxygen

90 wfwfacultative - grow with or without free oxygen wvwvacuum packaging helps to inhibit growth of aerobic organisms

91 pH wowoptimum pH for most microbes is near neutral (pH 7) wMwMolds - 2.0 - 8.0 wYwYeasts 4.0 - 4.5

92 wbwbacteria 5.2 - 7.0 wmwmeat and meat by products range from 4.8 - 6.8 wmwmeat conditions favor the growth of molds, yeast and acidolphilic bacteria

93 Curing and Smoking wdwdocumented as far back as 850 B.C. by the Chinese wswsmoking and salting (curing) only methods of preservation known

94 wiwimparts a particular flavor wfwfew people in the US still rely on curing and smoking to preserve meat

95 wswsalt and nitrite - two main ingredients wswsugar, ascorbate, erythorbate, phosphates, and delta gluconolactone

96 wswsalt is used in amounts to give flavor as opposed to amounts needed to preserve the meat

97 wnwnitrates used to impart the cured color and flavor and inhibit bacteria action wcwcannot ammount to more than 120 ppm

98 wowoldest method is dry curing wcwcure ingredients are rubbed onto surface of meat

99 wiwinjection curing wpwpump curing solution (brine) into meat wswshortens curing time

100 wcwcombination curing wdwdry curing and injection curing

101 Refrigeration wfwfresh meat, under home refrigeration conditions should be consumed within four days of purchase

102 Freezing wbwblast freezing - use high velocity air and temps af -10 C to -40 C wfwfreezes meat very quickly

103 wlwlength of time meat can be kept frozen depends on temperature, species, type of product and the wrapping material on the product

104 wrap using vapor proof materials wkwkeep oxygen out and moisture in wmwmoisture loss causes freezer burn

105 wbwbeef - 6-12 months wlwlamb - 6-9 months wpwpork - 4-6 months wcwcured meats - 1-2 months

106 Drying wlwlow moisture foods contain less than 25% moisture wBwBeef Jerky is an example of a low moisture food

107 wiwintermediate moisture less than 50% wdwdry salami


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