Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Film Studies: Forms course website: l A page containing all Film Studies course descriptions and full syllabi will be linked to the following."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Film Studies: Forms course website: l A page containing all Film Studies course descriptions and full syllabi will be linked to the following page: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/humanities/filmstudies/
Defining and controlling the space of the frame--framing l Aspect ratio l Camera position/placement –height –angle –level –composition –scale –movement
Aspect ratio (i) l Aspect ratio measures the shape and dimensions of the filmed image. It defines the proportions of the frame by taking the ratio of the length of the top or bottom to that of one of its sides.
Aspect ratio (ii) l Academy ratio 1.33:1 l European widescreen/Super 16 1.66:1 l Digital TV 1.78:1 l Panavision 1:1.85 l SuperPanavision (70mm) 2.2:1 l CinemaScope (anamorphic) 1:2.35
Anamorphic photography l Compared with a normal photograph, an anamorphic camera takes in a much wider angle of view and produces an image on the film that is laterally compressed. l In projection, a compensating lens expands the squeezed image to provide a wide screen presentation.
Widescreen style, post-1950s l Predisposition towards panoramas and views in long shot, stressing interrelatedness of characters and environments. l Increased use of camera movement and long takes. l Frontal orientation of camera, framing movement of characters in a larger space.
Aspect ratio (iii) Academy ratio European widescreen
Positioning the camera: scale l Scale refers to our perception of the size of the image relative to that of the frame. l The scale of the image is a function of both focal distance and focal length. –Focal distance is the distance between camera and subject. –Focal length is a property of the camera lens. l A measurement of the lens’s optics relative to its powers of magnification. l The “longer” the lens, the greater its powers of magnification
Defining focal length (for 35mm film) l Long or telephoto lenses: 75mm or more l “Normal” lenses: 35-70mm l Short or wide-angle lenses: 35mm or less l A zoom, or variable focal length lens, combines all these properties in one lens. –Zooming mimics camera movements. However, the camera does not move; it increases or decreases magnification of all object(s) in frame.
Scale and cutting height l ELS extreme long shot l LS long shot l FS full shot l 3/4 three-quarter shot l MS medium shot l MCU medium close-up l CU close-up l ECU extreme close-up
Scale (i) extreme long shot long shot full shot 3/4 shot