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Chapter 4 Plants. Lesson 1 How do leaves help a plant?  Leaves are organs made of cells and tissues  Plants make their own food called glucose  Leaves.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Plants. Lesson 1 How do leaves help a plant?  Leaves are organs made of cells and tissues  Plants make their own food called glucose  Leaves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Plants

2 Lesson 1 How do leaves help a plant?  Leaves are organs made of cells and tissues  Plants make their own food called glucose  Leaves contain various tissues. Each tissue has a particular cells that perform certain roles  Leaves have openings in the bottom to let air in and out

3  Plants make their own food.  They are called PRODUCERS  Producers- organisms that make their own food.  Humans are consumers.  Consumers- CANNOT make their own food.  Most of a plant’s food is made in its leaves.  The top layer of a leaf is smooth and this protects the plant.  The bottom layer of a leaf looks like a sponge.  It has spaces that air can pass through.

4 Parts of a Leaf

5 Photosynthesis  The process in which plants make sugar for food  Plants perform photosynthesis by using:  Carbon dioxide  Water  Sunlight  Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts  Chloroplasts make the plant green

6  Sunlight provides the cells the energy they need for photosynthesis.  A plant’s roots get the water.  The water enters the chloroplasts.  Carbon dioxide comes from the atmosphere (air).  Carbon dioxide enters the plant through its leaves (bottom).  Carbon dioxide then enters the chloroplasts.  The water and carbon dioxide combined are used to make sugar.  Photosynthesis makes OXYGEN for humans and animals.  Photosynthesis also makes GLUCOSE (sugar) for plants to grow.  This means that plants make glucose (sugar), their food, during the day.  They don’t use all of their food during the day; they save some for night time.

7  Cellular respiration- plants use oxygen with food to get the energy they need for growth, repairs, and reproduction  Sugar moves from the leaves to other parts of the plant where it is stored and later provides energy. It also forms cellulose, a chemical that makes up the strong cell walls.  Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight → oxygen + sugar

8 Lesson 2 How do stems and roots help a plant?  Stems- plant organs that hold leaves, flowers, and fruit on a plant  Xylem and phloem tissues are tubes that transport substances within vascular plants

9 Stems  Leaves grow on stems.  Stems are plants’ organs (heart, kidney).  Stems help leaves get more sunlight.  Stems also hold fruit and flowers on plants.  Some stems have thorns (roses).  Thorns are a plant’s protection.  A thorn is a sharp point.  There are two kinds of stems:  Woody stems (trees and bushes)  Non-woody stems (dandelions)

10 Parts of a Stem  Inside a stem there are tubes that transport (carry) things:  Minerals  Water  Nutrients  There are two types of tubes:  Xylem  Phloem

11 Xylem  Tubes that carry AWAY water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.  The roots take water from the soil.  The water has minerals in it that came from the soil (like fertilizer).  Plants use these minerals for photosynthesis.

12 Phloem  These are tubes that carry sugar from the leaves to the rest of the plant.  In trees, the phloem is the innermost layer of the bark.  The bark protects the phloem.

13 Roots  Roots are plant organs  They grow in the ground  Roots are strong  They hold the plant in place  Roots also help the plant get WATER from the ground

14 Different Kinds of Roots  Taproots- a large root that grows straight down  Fibrous root- many roots grow out in all directions / the roots divide into smaller and smaller roots

15 Lesson 3 How do plants reproduce?  Parts of a flower:  Petals- colorful outer area of the flower  Sta men - the male part of the flower (a single flower may have many stamens)  Anthers- tissues at the top of each stamen (where pollen is located)  Filament- holds the anthers  Pistil- the female part of the flower (has a bottle-like shape)  Stigma- receives pollen during civilization  Ovary- female reproductive organ


17 Pollination  Pollination is the moving of pollen from the stamen to the pistil  But how is this possible if plants don’t move?  Wind, insects (bees), water, birds, and even bats can move pollen  Flowers attract these organisms to come and eat the flower  When they rub against the flower, stamen cells attach to them

18  When they go to another flower, they drop the pollen down to the pistil  They join with egg cells in the pistil  This is called fertilization (just like how babies are made)  DNA carries information about how a plants looks and works  The sperm cell has half of the male parent’s DNA  The egg has half of the female parent’s DNA  This DNA combined causes new plants to look similar to their parents

19 Seeds  Parts of a seed:  Seed coat- protects the embryo  Embryo- where the new plant is formed  Endosperm- surrounds the embryo  A seed has one or two cotyledons. Seeds of plants with one cotyledon are called monocots, while seeds of plants with two cotyledon are called dicots  ityoflife/seedplants/ ityoflife/seedplants/

20 Spreading Seeds  Seeds can be spread through a variety of ways  Animals  Humans  Wind  Water  Affects rate of plant growth:  DNA  Environment

21 Spores  Spores are single plant cells that are not fertilized like seeds, but can grown into a new plant.  Many plants reproduce asexually, (with only one parent)  Some plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually  There are some plants that are cones that contain seeds. These seeds are moved through wind, birds, insects, etc. and these help spread the seeds.

22 Monocot & Dicot MonocotDicot A monocot seed, like corn, has one area of stored food, while a dicot has two areas that are easily split apart such as a bean A monocot has veins that are parallel, while a dicot’s veins branch out Most monocots have fibrous root systems. Most dicots have taproot systems.

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