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English Language Development

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1 English Language Development
The plan today is to provide an overview of the ELD foundations and framework, highlight some key research, and introduce strategies for implementation. Foundations and Framework Volume 1 1

2 Outcomes Explore California demographics Why two languages?
Paths to bilingualism Navigate and understand the structure and content of the English-language development domain. Begin to think about ways to use California Department of Education resources to support English-language development. Describe demographics Explore the theoretical basis for supporting bilingualism Identify paths to bilingualism Examine supporting resources developed by the California Department of Education, Child Development Division

3 Where Do You Stand? Read the eight core beliefs about English-language learners posted around the room. Stand next to the belief that speaks most loudly to you. Discuss your choice with others who have made the same selection. Choose a spokesperson to share a sentence or two about your choice with the rest of the group. Activity 1: Where Do You Stand? INTENT: Philosophically draw people together and engage participants in the topic. OUTCOMES: Participants will orient themselves to the topic of the day. Participants will become familiar with other participants in the session. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Post each of the Eight Core Beliefs in different areas of the room. TIME: 10 minutes PROCESS: Post the Eight Core Beliefs about English-language learners around the room. Ask participants to stand next to the belief that they most recognize or understand to be true. Ask participants to discuss their choice with others who have made the same selection. Have a spokesperson at each core belief share a sentence or two about their choice with the rest of the group. SUMMARY POINTS: The core beliefs we hold dear are related to our principles and practices. Challenge participants to think about those core beliefs to which they least related. Over the course of the training participants will hear information to help connect those core beliefs. Let participants know that the Eight Core Beliefs can be found in the PEL Guide, pp. 3-4. OPTIONS: Post the core beliefs both in English and in Spanish. Keep the Eight Core Beliefs posted on a stand at the front of the room.

4 First, Let’s Look at the Big Picture

5 California Context

6 Who is an English Learner?
Children whose families use a language other than English at home, and Children whose primary or first language is a language other than English. FAQ 21 Time: 2 minute Read slide. Refer participants to HO1, Preschool Learning Foundation FAQ’s. Point out that FAQ 21 expands on this information. Give them 1 minute to look at this FAQ. Background information: Children come to preschool with varying levels of English-language proficiency. Regardless of children’s prior experience with English, they learn English at different rates from one another. Individual children’s progress in one area of learning may occur at a different rate than in other areas of learning. Home/school connection is not only important but essential for children on the path to acquiring English. Families are the best source of information. Parent reports on child’s language dominance may not really give you the full picture as siblings and other relatives may be providing a lot of English input. Without a reliable screener for language dominance, family reports may be a program’s sole source of information. The Child Development Division 9600, Confidential application for CD services (CD 9600 – Back Side) has a place for identifying the child’s primary language 6

7 Demographic Trends: California and English Learners
Ask audience to think about the children they serve, their ethnic backgrounds, languages, IEP status, etc. Solicit some of their thoughts to help the group appreciate the diversity of the children served. Demographic Trends (1 minute) Highlight the fact that the majority of the increase in English learners is coming from families who already reside in California. Immigration accounts for only about 5% of the annual increase. If needed, add current state demographics of English learners to the PowerPoint. This is done by: going to click on DataQuest live link select from first drop down menu, “state” select from second drop down menu, “English Learners” click the “Submit” button select “Time Series - Number of English Learners” which already comes in a graph format that can be easily inserted into a PowerPoint presentation Discuss: Why the percentage has dropped recently (see current articles on demographic trends statewide and locally). Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 2 7

8 Placeholder Insert your local demographic data here Time: 1 minute

9 What Does that Mean for Us?
We must take into consideration how young children, whose home language is not English, negotiate learning in all content and curricular areas. Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, p. 103 It is important to support English-language development across all domains. “Language is a tool of communication used in all developmental domains. Children who are English learners need to be supported not only in activities focused on language and literacy, but across the entire curriculum.” (Guiding Principle, PLF, p. 181) ©2012 California Department of Education (CDE) California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) 5/31/2012 9

10 Why Two Languages? Ask participants to consider what the possible benefits are for those who speak more than one language. Consider using a think pair share and popcorn sharing. 10

11 Advantages of Being Bilingual
Communication Cultural Cognitive Character Curriculum Cash C 6 5 minutes to validate and expand upon participant responses Presenter note - Clicking will reveal six advantages. Before revealing advantages, consider soliciting life stories from one or two participants, or sharing your life story. Communication advantages—can communicate with a wider range of people Cultural advantages—increased understanding of culture through language, can navigate in more cultural group, Cognitive advantages—thinking, memory, brain plasticity Character advantages—increased self-esteem, security in identity Curriculum advantages—easier to learn a third language, increased school achievement Cash and financial advantages—increased employment benefits 11 11

12 Do you see an advantage to being bilingual?
Insert Barking goldfish video here

13 Role of Home Language

14 Importance of Home Language
Developing proficiency in the first language helps children learn a second language Bialystok, 2001; Childhood Bilingualism, 2006; Cummins, 1979; Fillmore, 1991; Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998 Wong Talking points: Children who have the skills to understand and communicate in their home language will transfer that knowledge to the learning of a second language resulting in a more effective and efficient second language learning process. (Cummins, 1979; Wong Fillmore, 1991) (PLF, p. 194) For example, building Spanish speaking children’s language skills in their first language directly enhances their literacy development in English (Bialystok, 2001; Childhood Bilingualism, 2006; Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998)

15 Cross Language Transfer Theory
Skills, background knowledge and cognitive strategies transfer between the first and second language August & Hakuta, 1997; Ben-Zeev, 1997; Bernhardt, 1991; Durgunologlu & Verhoven, 1998 L1 L2 Some skills and knowledge transfer from one language to the next. For example, children who have phonological awareness skills can apply those skills to other languages. Children apply the skills and knowledge they already have to our new language. Children test them and determine if they are correct in the new language. If not, they learn what is appropriate for the new language. Cognitive skills, such as understand that words represent knowledge, is within the individual and transfers to the new language. 15 15

16 Threshold Hypotheses Before the benefits of bilingualism can be achieved, one must achieve minimum levels of proficiency in both his home language and in the second language. Cummins & Swain, 1986 The threshold hypothesis provides the rationale for additive rather than subtractive bilingual program. The hypothesis supports that individuals with high levels in both languages experience advantages in terms of linguistic and cognitive flexibility. While low levels of proficiency in one or both languages can result in cognitive or linguistic deficits. 16 16

17 Maintaining the home language…
Socializes children into their families and communities Crago, 1988; Johnston and Wong, 2002; Ochs and Schieffeline,1995; Vasquez, Pease-Alvarez, and Shannon, 1994 Provides a foundation for success in learning and literacy in English. Durgunoglu and Oney, 2000; Jimenez, Garcia, and Pearson,1995; Lanauze and Snow, 1989; Lopez and Greenfield, 2004 “Preschool children who are English learners need targeted classroom support, intentional focus on vocabulary development and English language and literacy development, and close collaboration with families. At the same time, the home language and culture are to be respected, honored, and supported.” (PCF, p. 185)

18 Results of Language Loss
Diminished parent-child communication, socialization, and identity Wong Fillmore, 1991 Cultural and linguistic displacement Genesee, Paradis, and Crago, 2004 Reduced sense of self-efficacy, social, and cognitive development Chang, 2007; Duke and Purcell-Gates, 2003; Moll, 1992; Riojas-Cortez, 2001; Vygotsky and Education, 1990 “Loss of home language may diminish parent-child communication, reducing a parent’s ability to transmit familial values, beliefs, and understandings (Wong Fillmore, 1991b), all of which form an important part of a young child’s socialization and identity.” (PLF, p. 104) 18

19 The Program Guidelines and Resources component includes publications such as the Prekindergarten Learning & Development Guidelines and the Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning (PEL Guide). Much of the background information on the previous slides was based on information in the Preschool English Learners Guide. The upcoming video clip is from another of California’s Program Guidelines and Resources, the DVD A World Full on Language. 19 19

20 Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning
Both of these resources are available in English and Spanish. They provide information on how young children acquire English as a second language and research-based strategies to support English learners. The DVD is closed-captioned and formatted so that viewers can see it in its entirety or in sections. Next, we will do an activity with one section of the DVD. 20 20

21 Paths to Bilingualism Let’s take a closer look now at the stages children go through as they become bilingual. Ask participants to take out their handout HO2_Stages of Sequential Language Acquisition. Let them know that the video clip they will be seeing will describe these four stages (although the video refers to this as Successive Language Acquisition). Let them know you will pause after each stage so that they can record their notes on their worksheet.

22 Paths to Bilingualism Simultaneous Successive
The child is learning both languages prior to age three The child is exposed to the second language at age three or older Four stages Home Language Observational/Listening Telegraphic/Formulaic Productive Language Use Use this slide to provide a brief overview of the paths to bilingualism. Explain that in the video clip, the four stages of successive language development will be illustrated.

23 World Full of Language Insert clip Stages of Bilingual Language Acquisition Activity 2: Sequential Stages of Bilingual Language Acquisition INTENT: Actively engage learners to use World Full of Language as a resource, to analyze what is seen and heard, and to promote conversation about the topic. Participants will use the summary sheets they created for an activity later on in the session. OUTCOMES: Participants will begin to use World Full of Language as a resource. Participants will create a summary sheet about characteristics of the stages of bilingual language development to use later in the day and back at their programs. MATERIALS REQUIRED: HO2--Stages of Sequential Bilingual Language Acquisition World Full of Language video clip TIME: 15 minutes PROCESS: Ask participants to take out the worksheet “Stages of Sequential Bilingual Language Acquisition.” (Handout 2) Show the video clip from World Full of Language, pausing after each stage of language development. Encourage participants to jot down notes that they want to remember. (continued next slide) 23

24 Making connections Compare your notes with an elbow partner
Fill in anything you missed. At the end of the video clip, ask participants to share what they noted with an elbow partner, and add notes to their own sheets as needed. Participants will use this later in the day and back at their program. SUMMARY POINTS: The terms “sequential” and “successive” language development mean the same thing. You will see both terms used in the literature but not in the foundations, per se. Children entering a preschool program with little or no knowledge of English, typically move through several stages on their journey to achieving success in a second language. “Children will often weave in and out of each stage, depending on the situation.” (Preschool English Learners Guide, p. 46) If desired, solicit examples from the group. The length of time a child remains at a stage and the level of expectation for second language learning depend on several important characteristics of the child and their language environment. It may take from 6 months to 2 years to move through the four stages. (PLF, p. 106) The age of the child The child’s temperament (introverted vs. extroverted) The quantity and quality of the language input at home and the school. OPTIONS: (If desired, solicit group responses instead of delivering the following information.) First stage---happens when the child attempts to use their home language to communicate and it does not work. During this stage the child gradually realizes that he is not being understood and must adapt to their new language environment. Second stage---the child starts to actively attend to the new language, observing and silently processing the features of the second language. This is the observational period and it is very normal. The child does not shut down; he is paying attention. During this stage the child may attempt to communicate nonverbally using gestures, facial expressions, and often some verbalizations such as crying or laughing. Third stage---here the child is ready to ‘go public’ with the new language. The child works on mastering the rhythm and intonation of the second language and begins to use key phrases, using telegraphic, and/or formulaic phrases (e.g., look it; want it, gonna). Fourth stage—child introduces more vocabulary in their communication and moves into the productive stage using their own words ©2012 California Department of Education (CDE) California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) 5/31/2012 24 24

25 Let’s turn now to see how this research is integrated into California’s Early Learning and Development System. Ask participants to refer to HO3_Early Learning and Development System handout. Briefly go over the 5 elements, emphasizing that English language development is included in each element…and that we will be moving on now to looking at the resources and how they complement each other. (click to reveal circle around Foundations) At the center of the system are the Preschool Learning Foundations which describe the learning and development that preschool children typically demonstrate with appropriate support at around 48 and 60 months of age. 25 25

26 California Department of Education Resources
The foundations describe how children develop, grow, and learn. The preschool foundations are for all children and reflect the diversity found in California. 26

27 Beginning, middle, later
Refer participants to HO4: A Different Format. The foundations for English-language Development describe the knowledge and skills in sequential or successive English acquisition that young children typically exhibit: In beginning, middle, and later stages of English-language development; With appropriate support; and When attending a high-quality preschool program. You may be familiar with other domains in the foundations, where children’s development is described at 48 and 60 months of age. Notice that the English-language development foundations use a three-stage system to describe children’s development—beginning, middle, and later.

28 28 28 (click to reveal circle around the Frameworks)
The Preschool Curriculum Framework offers guidance on how programs and teachers can support the learning and development that are described in the foundations, through environments and experiences that are linguistically and developmentally appropriate, as well as individually and culturally meaningful and connected. 28 28

29 California Department of Education Resources
The English Language Development chapter in the Framework is aligned with the English Language Development Chapter in the Foundations. 29

30 Framework Strategies Environment and materials Teachable moments
Planning learning opportunities Interactions and strategies “In the early childhood classroom, the physical environment for your children who are English learners needs to be modified to create a learning environment that provides access to the curriculum content through multiple avenues.” (PLF, p. 181) “Teachers of young English learners need to be aware of the stages of second-language development so they can anticipate the kind of individual attention preschool English learners may need.” (PCF, p. 190). Purposeful teaching helps children gain knowledge and skills. Teachers must also add adaptations for children with special needs as needed. ©2012 California Department of Education (CDE) California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) 5/31/2012 30

31 Supporting the English Learner
Talking points: Regardless of what language or languages a preschool child is learning, he is still in the process of mastering that language. This does not only apply to second language learners…it applies also to children whose home language is English. (PLF, p. 104) Many of the following strategies to support English-Language learners will be equally as valuable for English-speaking children and children with disabilities.

32 Environment and Materials
Areas for two or three children (or an adult and one or two children) (PCF, p. 183) Play areas where a child can listen without speaking (PCF, p. 182) Environmental print in English and home languages (PCF, pp. 183, ) Print and audio resources in English and home languages (PCF, p. 191) Wordless picture books (PCF, p. 203) (click to reveal) “Small groups and individual interactions with peers provide preschool English learners with additional time and opportunities to practice their English…[T]hose with more advanced mastery of the language can…be effective language models for children who are newcomers to the community.” (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 183). “[W]hen soft seating and small tables are placed throughout the classroom, teachers can sit next to English learners and model English language informally.” Teachers can label objects and describe activities without expecting a response in English. (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 183). (click to reveal) Provide spaces where “children can be physically engaged in an activity that they intuitively understand and [can] be near peers who speak English without high demands for producing a language they have not yet mastered. It allows for a ‘break,’ deferring control to the individual child to talk when ready.” (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 182) (click to reveal) “Environmental print that reflects the languages of the children, as well as English, should…be incorporated into classroom activities and routines…As preschool English learners rely more on nonverbal cues to understand classroom routines and expectations, it will be important to have interest areas and material clearly labeled…with pictures and words in English and the home language…[to] promote associations between words and objects in both languages.” (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 183) “The sight of posters, pictures, and signs with print will allow preschool children to begin learning individual letter name and connecting print with specific meaning.” (PCF, Vol. 1, pp ) (click to reveal) “In addition to the audiotapes, CDs, and DVDs available in English, have a parent or other fluent speaker of the child’s home language record favorite books, stories, songs, and poems.” (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 191) (click to reveal) “Children may begin by telling a story in their home language and, as time goes on, begin incorporating words or phrases in English. Wordless picture books also permit parents who do not speak English to interact with their children in their home language.” (PCF, Vol. 1, p. 203)

33 My Plan Activity 3: My Plan for Environment and Materials INTENT:
Participants will have an opportunity to process new information on appropriate environments and materials to support English-language learners. OUTCOMES: Participants will create a summary sheet to use back at their programs to implement environment and materials strategies learned in this session. MATERIALS REQUIRED: HO5—Environment and Materials TIME: 15 minutes PROCESS: Ask participants to take out the worksheet “Environments and Materials” (Handout 5) Point out that they should add one more tip from the Framework pages to the space provided on the bottom of the form. Environment and Materials can be found on pp Have them fill out the forms independently. When everyone at the table is done, ask participants to share out ideas with table mates, and add new ideas they would like to try out on their own handout. Solicit a few ideas for implementation to share with the whole group. SUMMARY POINTS: Appropriate environment and materials are an integral part of the curriculum to support the English-language learner.

34 English-Language Development Strands and Substrands
Ask participants to take out their HO6_Strands and Substrands handout. Explain that for each strand and substrand in the foundations, they will find corresponding strands and substrands in the framework. Ask participants to work in partners or as a table group to find the Speaking strand and the three substrands under Speaking in the Foundations book. (Begins on p. 115) Now ask participants to now find the beginning of the Speaking strand in the Framework (p. 196). Reiterate that the foundations will tell them what children will know and do, and that the framework will provide guidelines on how teachers can support children’s learning.

35 English-Language Development Strands and Substrands
The first two strands we will look at are Listening and Speaking.

36 Listening and Speaking
Use gestures, props, home language to aid understanding and vocabulary development (PCF, pp. 190, 102, 199) Repeat common phrases slowly and clearly (PCF, p. 199) Give the child time (PCF, p. 199) Expand and extend (PCF, p. 199) Listen and ask (PCF, p. 203) Ask participants to follow along and take notes on their HO7_Strategies for Listening and Speaking handout. English learners are often able to understand much more than they can produce. (PCF, p. 188). “While young children who are English learners are hearing the sounds of English, familiarizing themselves with words in English, and learning how words go together in phrases and short sentences, they will begin to try out these new sounds, words, and phrases.” (PCF, p. 196) Combine words with some kind of gesture, action, …picture cues, physical gestures, facial expressions,…pantomimes, …and props. (PCF, pp. 192, 199) “By stating common words and phrases in English and the home language…teachers can help preschool children who are English learners make the connections between the language they know and the language they are learning.” (PCF, pp. 190, 199) “It is important for adults to be deliberate in their teaching actions by clarifying, describing, or demonstrating what is meant.” (PCF, p. 199) “Pronounce each word clearly so that the child has time to hear good examples of the words and phrases in English… Combine gestures, pictures, and touching of objects.” (PCF, p. 199) “The child needs ample time to watch and become comfortable before utilizing spoken English as a primary means of communication.” (PCF, p. 199). Even then, it is important to give children enough wait time to respond so that they have time to process what they hear in English. (PCF, p. 199) “Catch them using English and extend and expand upon their language. For example, if the child says “car,” the teacher could say, “Oh, you want the red car.” (PCF, p. 199) When children attempt to tell a story in English, listen with as much undivided attention as possible. Ask open ended questions to encourage conversations. (PCF, p. 203)

37 Insert video clip here Insert your choice of available illustrative clips here.

38 English-Language Development Strands and Substrands
The last two strands we will look at are Reading and Writing.

39 Reading and Writing Library materials in home language and English (PCF, pp. 208, 214) Use language and literacy activities with repetitive refrains and rhymes (PCF, pp. 191, 215) Before reading, introduce key vocabulary in home language (PCF, pp. 191, 208) Create small groups for book reading (PCF, pp. 191, 210) Encourage children to create their own books (PCF, pp , 221) Ask participants to follow along and take notes on their HO8_Strategies for Reading and Writing handout. “Have a parent or other fluent speaker of the child’s home language record favorite books, stories, songs, and poems.” (PCF, p. 191). Invite storytellers from the community to read and tell stories in the home language. Send children home with story packs to share with families in both languages. (PCF, p. 208). Make sure to include alphabet books in multiple languages to help children with letter recognition. (PCF, p. 214) “[Repetitive refrains help] the English learner…hear the idea or concept multiple time.” (for example, Brown Bear, Brown Bear) (PCF, p. 191). Include silly songs in English to help children learn and manipulate the sounds of English. (for example, Apples and Bananas). (PCF, p. 215) “[Previewing key vocabulary in the home language] provides the child with the opportunity to use the home language as a basis for transferring concepts and understanding from the home language to English.” (PCF, p. 191) By pointing out key vocabulary words, providing expanded definitions with visual aids, and using the new vocabulary in multiple contexts, teachers will facilitate understanding of the text and English-language development. (PCF, p. 208) Small group reading gives “children who are learning English…closer interactions with the material, and the teacher can slow the pace of reading and use words or phrases in the home language to assist with understanding and scaffold learning.” (PCF, p. 199). Choose books that reflect home culture to help engage attention. (PCF, p. 208) “Invite children to discuss and react to story narratives.” (PCF, p. 210). Encourage children to dictate or write their own books, notes, letters, and stories. After book reading, give children opportunities to draw pictures related to the story and to dictate a caption or story to go with the picture. “By talking about, writing about, reading about, and publicly sharing their personal life histories, preschool English learners will develop pride in their cultural identity, create a positive orientation to literacy, and create meaningful and engaging text.” (PCF, pp , 221)

40 Insert video clip here Insert your choice of available illustrative clips here.

41 Accommodations and Adaptations for Children with Disabilities
“The more we support English-language development by engaging children through different modalities, the more likely children are to both understand and use that language in a meaningful context.” (Whit Hayslip, Ph.D.) Read slide Refer participants to HO9—Adaptations for Children with Disabilities 41

42 How Would You Do It? Handout 7 Handout 8 Handout 9 Handout 10
Activity 4: How Would You Do It? INTENT: Practice developing lesson plans to meet the needs of all children, including English-language learners and children with disabilities. OUTCOMES: Participants will practice using strategies to support English-language learners in lesson planning. Participants will practice using strategies to support children with disabilities in lesson planning. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Lesson Plan handout (or other lesson plan format) A sample of early childhood literature (book, poem, fingerplay, or song) for each table group - Handout 7—Strategies for Listening and Speaking, Handout 8—Strategies for Reading and Writing, Handout 9—Some Adaptations for Children with Disabilities, Handout10—How Would You Do It? TIME: 25 minutes PROCESS: Give each group a picture book to use to complete the lesson plan, a profile of a child with a disability and a profile of a child learning English. Brainstorm how you might use your story/song/fingerplay/poem to support children’s development of each of the goals in the left hand column. In the first column, jot down a strategy you might use for a typical classroom of diverse children. In the second column, discuss the needs of the child with disabilities profiled at your table. How might you ensure that the activity is accessible to that child? Jot down your strategy in the space provided. In the third column, think about the child learning English profiled at your table. How might you ensure that the activity is accessible to that child? Jot down your strategy in the space provided. The adaptations for the child with disabilities and the child learning English should be tweaks to the strategy you have planned for your typical classroom, not totally different strategies. Model the process . As a large group, work though an example first with participants using Jack Be Nimble or another familiar short poem. Ask for at least two suggestions from the group. Ask members of the group how they might adapt that activity for a child with a hearing impairment. Ask members how they might adapt that activity for a Korean speaking child at the observational stage of English language development. (5 minutes) Provide work time for groups to complete their sheets at their table. (20 minutes) Options for Activity Read a very short book to the whole group and have participants complete the lesson plan form based on that book. Allow groups to select a book, poem, finger play or song to use to develop the lesson plan. Options for Sharing Out Ask groups to do work on chart paper. Post. Wall walk. Go around the room and solicit one idea from each table. Handout 7 Handout 8 Handout 9 Handout 10

43 Strategies for Dual Language Learners Throughout the Framework
For example, in Chapter 6, Mathematics, you will find: Modified language Manipulative and every day objects Modeling and acting out Oral descriptors for new vocabulary Respect the silent period Match questions to the child’s proficiency level Use the child’s first language and culture (Mathematics in the Early Years, NAEYC) The focus of Chapter 5 of the Framework is on supporting the development of English skills in Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. But as we noted earlier, English learners need support to develop skills in the other domains as well, such as Mathematics and Science. You will find strategies to support dual language learners throughout all three volumes of the framework. On the screen, you will find examples of how to support the dual language learner in learning Mathematics, even when a child is at the earlier stages of English language development. Modified language: Use shorter sentences with concrete vocabulary. Use manipulative and everyday objects: Make sure that children understand what is said by showing them examples of what is being talked about. Modeling and acting out: Show children what they can do and encourage them to dramatize and act out their activities. Oral descriptors: Make sure the children are in a language-rich environment in which much oral discussion takes place to describe specific vocabulary. Respect the silent period: Allow children time to listen and to decide when they are ready to speak. Note that the silent period (or dormant period) is typically weeks or months in which the child will not attempt to speak the new language and sometimes avoids their home language for awhile while they integrate the meanings and functionality of the two language systems. Match questions: Determine the child’s level of proficiency in English and include the child in discussion by asking questions that are appropriate for the child’s proficiency so they are successful. Use the child’s first language and culture: Look for community members that can provide the children with explanations in their first language. Summary: Using these strategies will help young children learning English as a second language to become competent in mathematics as they acquire a second language. -This list came from a Chapter 23 in the book Mathematics in the Early Years (NAEYC). 43

44 Use the ELD and the L&L Foundations and Frameworks as Companions
ELD foundations Designed to assist classroom teachers in their understanding of children’s progress toward English proficiency (PLF, p. 105) L&L foundations Describe development of language and literacy skills for all children Talking points: The ELD foundations are meant to be used along with the language and literacy foundations, not in place of them (PLF, p. 105). The English-language development foundations show children’s development in English which is acquired along a continuum of development, and not at specific points in time. The language and literacy foundations are the knowledge, skills and behaviors children have acquired at specific points in time. For example, foundation 1.1 on page 176: “Use language to communicate with others in familiar social situations for a variety of basic purposes, including describing, requesting, commenting, acknowledging, greeting and rejecting.”

45 Alignment of stages and levels for Listening and Speaking
PEL Guide Stages First stage--Use of home language in second language setting Second stage--Observational and listening period Third stage--Telegraphic and formulaic communication Fourth stage--Productive language use Foundations Levels Beginning Middle Later “The four stages of successive or sequential second language acquisition found in the PEL Guide (home language, observational/listening, telegraphic/formulaic and fluid stages) are approximately parallel to the three levels in the ELD foundations: “beginning” level -home language and observational/listening stage; “middle” level -observational/listening and telegraphic/formulaic stages; and “later” level - fluid stage” when looking at the Listening and Speaking strands. The ELD foundations collapse the first two stages of this progression into the “beginning” level. The telegraphic and formulaic communication stage is the “middle” level and the fluid/productive use of language is the “later” level. (PEL Guide, p. 46). First two stages are collapsed because learners demonstrate very uneven development across the foundations. This alignment holds true only for the Listening and Speaking strands. Due to the nature of the Reading and Writing strands, this correspondence is far less clear.

46 Let’s Practice Activity 5: What Level is It?
INTENT: Help participants practice identifying the three levels of English-language development. OUTCOMES: Participants will be able to identify a child’s level of English-language development based on naturalistic observation during the normal program day. Become more familiar with the characteristics that identify the three levels of English-language development. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Handout 11a—What Level Is It?, Handout 11b—Answer key TIME: 15 minutes PROCESS: Ask participants to take Handout 11a: “What Level Is It?” worksheet from their folders. As elbow partners, triads or tables, ask participants to complete the sheet. Refer to the four substrands of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing of the preschool English learner domain in the Preschool Learning Foundations to help figure out what level each example illustrates. If the question indicates Listening, please figure out what level it might illustrate in Listening. If it indicates Reading, decide on a level in reading. SUMMARY POINTS: Answer key on the Activity Sheet indicates a page reference where the same or similar example can be found. Emphasize that children can be at one level in listening, another level in reading and another in writing.

47 The Desired Results Assessment System is designed to document the progress made by children and families in achieving desired results and provides information to help practitioners improve their child care and development services. The Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP) is an observation assessment instrument that enables teachers to document children’s learning and developmental progress along a continuum of four developmental levels. 47 47

48 The DRDP-PS Assesses Children’s Progress toward Achieving the Foundations
This child assessment instrument is aligned with the Preschool Learning Foundations.

49 Assessing and Monitoring Children's Progress
For all domains other than English-Language Development, children may demonstrate their knowledge using their home language, English, or other communication methods. The four English-Language Development measures, are focused specifically on a child’s growing skills in English. Talking points All children, particularly children at the “Beginning” and “Middle” levels of English language acquisition, may show knowledge and skills in different domains using their home language. The DRDP-PS recognizes this possibility by considering children’s demonstrations of knowledge and skills in their home language as evidence of developmental progress.

50 Desired Results Developmental Profile
There are four measures used to specifically to assess children’s progress in learning English. These measures are only used with children where a language other than English is spoken in the home. Measure 23: Comprehension of English (receptive English) Measure 24: Self-expression in English (expressive English) Measure 25: Understanding and response to English literacy activities Measure 26: Symbol, letter, and print knowledge in English 50

51 Reflection Think of a child in your classroom. At what stage of English-language development is this child? How do you support English-language learners now? What new strategies might you try? What strategies do you use with families to determine how they support their child’s home language? 51

52 Reflection Read aloud the questions on the slide.
The last question is the real link to ‘culture’ and how culture interacts with language development. (Marlene Zepeda) Give participants 5 minutes record their thoughts and reflections on Handout 12.

53 Learn More PEL Guide Training PEL Website PEL Guide
This session is focused on understanding the foundations for English-language development and beginning to think of how you can use these foundations to support the children in your care. There is much more to learn about English-language development than can be covered in this session on the foundations. We encourage you to take advantage of Preschool English Learners trainings available in your region. (Provide participants with specific information on how to access PEL training.) The PEL Website and the Preschool English Learners are also good sources of more information.

54 Questions and Comments

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